Chapter 12

Who produces the news?

Caroline Fisher, Kieran McGuinness, Sora Park, Kerry McCallum and Jee Lee
September 2021

This chapter provides an overview of the news media infrastructure and popular news outlets across 15 Asian markets.

Cover Image
Chi Long Soon
Who produces the news?

Australia

At a glance
Population
25.5 million (2020) 1
GDP per capita
USD 55,060 (2019) 2
Political system
Representative democracy
Number of journalists
19,700 workers (includes journalists and ‘Other Writers’) (2019) 3
Demographics
Ethnicities
English (36.1%), Australian (33.5%), Irish (11.0%), Scottish (9.3%), Chinese (5.6%), Indian (4.6%) (2016) 4
Languages
English (72.7%), Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%), Italian (1.2%), other languages (21%) (2016) 5
Religions
No religion (30.1%), Catholic (22.6%), Anglican (13.3%), Other Christian (16.3%), Islam (2.6%), Buddhism (2.4%), Hinduism (1.9%), Sikhism (0.5%), Judaism (0.4%), Other (0.4%) (2016) 6
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
86.5% (2017) 7
Top internet service providers
Telstra, TPG Group, Optus, Vocus Group, Other (2019) 8
Mobile phone ownership
91% smartphone ownership (2019) 9

Impact of Covid-19

Dozens of newsrooms have closed temporarily or permanently, or have had their print editions suspended. 10 Despite the disruption, the industry shows some signs of development and recovery. Between February 2019 and the end of 2020, 17 new mastheads, stations, websites or print editions were established, mostly as digital-first news organisations in regional areas. 11 This includes a raft of digital-only outlets launched by News Corporation Australia to cover regional Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia, 12 as well as some independently owned regional papers that replaced outlets closed in some towns, such as the Naracoorte Community News. 13

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Although the use of online news is rising, television is still the main source of news for Australian audiences. The Covid-19 pandemic appears to have strengthened this. 14 In January​/​February 2020, 63% of Australians said they used television to access news. This increased to 76% in April 2020. 15 Around 39% said television was their main source of news, which had jumped to 51% in April 2020 because more people were at home due to social isolation measures to control the pandemic. 16

Reach
Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
Sydney
Audience share
41%
Seven West Media
English
Sydney
Audience share
38%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share
38%
ViacomCBS Networks UK & Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share
22%
Public (Special Broadcasting Service)
English
Sydney
Audience share
15%
Australian News Channel Pty. Ltd.
English
Sydney
Audience share
12%
Prime Media Group Limited
English
Canberra
Audience share
9%
WIN Corporation
English
Wollongong
Audience share
8%

Newspapers

In recent years, print newspapers have declined as a major source of news for audiences. Just prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, only 25% of Australians said they read newspapers, and only 6% said newspapers were their main sources of news. 17

Reach
News Corp Australia
English
Melbourne
Audience share a
12%
News Corp Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share a
10%
News Corp Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share a
9%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share a
8%
News Corp Australia
English
Brisbane
Audience share b
6%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Melbourne
Audience share b
6%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share b
5%
News Corp Australia
English
Adelaide
Audience share b
5%
Other capital city newspapers
Audience share b
3%

Radio news

Radio is significantly less popular as a source of news than both TV and online outlets, and its use is falling. In January​/​February 2020, 28% of Australians said they used radio to access news, down from 37% in 2019. Only 7% nominated radio as their main source of news. 18 Radio is mainly popular with older Australians: only 2% of Gen Z say they use radio as their main source of news, compared to 10% of those aged 74 and over. 19

Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
National
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Melbourne
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Brisbane
Australian Radio Network
English
National
Illyria Nominees Television
English
National
Public (Special Broadcasting Service)
English
National
Southern Cross Austereo
English
National

Online news

Online news is the second most popular medium for news in Australia. Around 53% of respondents said they used online news prior to the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. Half of those (27%) said online news was their main source of news. 20

Reach
News Corp Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share a
23%
Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
Sydney
Audience share a
23%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share a
18%
Seven West Media Ltd
English
Sydney
Audience share a
14%
Guardian News and Media
English
Sydney
Audience share a
12%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share a
12%
Australian News Channel Pty. Ltd.
English
Sydney
Audience share a
9%
News Corp Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share a
9%
News Corp Australia
English
Sydney
Audience share a
8%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Melbourne
Audience share a
8%
News Corp Australia
English
Melbourne
Audience share a
8%
News Corp Australia
English
Brisbane
Audience share b
6%
Industry Super Holdings
English
Melbourne
Audience share b
6%
Seven West Media Ltd
English
Perth
Audience share b
5%
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
Audience share b
4%
The Conversation Media Group Ltd
English
Melbourne
Audience share b
4%
English
Melbourne
Audience share b
2%
Private Media Pty. Ltd.
English
Melbourne
Audience share b
2%
Schwartz Media
English
Melbourne
At Large Media
English

Social media

Social media remains popular as a source of news in Australia. It was the third most popular medium for news in 2020. Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, 52% of those surveyed said they accessed news through social media, and 21% said it was their main source of news. 21 Social media use for news is strongly skewed towards younger Australians, with 48% of Gen Z and 33% of Gen Y saying it was their main source of news, compared to only 4% of those aged 74 and above. 22

Reach
Daily Mail and General Trust
English
London
followers
4,100,000
Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
Sydney
followers
4,000,000
BuzzFeed, Inc.
English
New York
followers
2,500,000
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
followers
2,300,000
Seven West Media Ltd
English
Sydney
followers
2,000,000
News Corporation Australia
English
Sydney
followers
1,400,000
Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
Sydney
subscribers
1,190,000
Australian News Channel Pty. Ltd.
English
Sydney
followers
984,000
News Corporation Australia
English
Sydney
followers
907,000
Australian News Channel Pty. Ltd.
English
Sydney
subscribers
818,000
Nine Entertainment Company
English
Sydney
subscribers
572,000
Independent
English
Melbourne
subscribers
497,000
Public (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)
English
Sydney
subscribers
434,000
Seven West Media Ltd
English
Sydney
subscribers
315,000

News startups

Startups have struggled to remain viable in Australia’s small news market. 23 However, some have succeeded. Crikey was one of the first startups in Australia and is now a well-established independent online news provider. Similarly, The Saturday Paper, The Daily Mail and the New Daily are now mainstays. Some journalists who had been retrenched from mainstream news media have started their own subscription news services. Michael West Media is an example. In regional Australia, several startups have emerged to fill the void created by local closures. 24

West Vic News Pty Ltd
English
Victoria
Braidwood’s Changing Times
Independent
English
New South Wales
South Burnett Today Pty Ltd
English
Queensland
Central Queensland Media
English
Queensland
English
Queensland
Sunny Coast Media
English
Queensland
Wimmera Mallee News
English
Victoria
Solstice Media
English
Queensland
Ooh Media
English
Sydney
English
South Australia
English
South Australia
Independent
English
New South Wales
Star News Group
English
Queensland
English
New South Wales
Independent
English
Northern Territory
Nine Entertainment Co.
English
Richmond River Independent Community Association
English
New South Wales
South Burnett Today Pty Ltd
English
Queensland
Star News Group
English
Queensland
English
New South Wales
Sunny Coast Media
English
Queensland
Longreach Printing Company
English
Queensland
Independent
English
Queensland
Longreach Printing Company
English
Queensland
English
New South Wales
English
Victoria
English
Victoria
English
Victoria
Longreach Printing Company
English
Queensland
English
New South Wales
The Paper
South Gippsland Digital Media
English
Victoria
Longreach Printing Company
English
Queensland
Independent
English
Queensland
English
New South Wales

Not-for-profit news outlets

Australia does not have an established culture of philanthropy and not-for-profit news. One long-running not-for-profit outlet is the Big Issue newspaper, which is sold for and by people experiencing homelessness and unemployment. The community broadcasting sector provides free radio and TV news, as well as student journalism produced and published by university journalism programs across the country. 25

Reach
Philanthropists and investors
English
Sydney
audience numbers
5 million +

Cambodia

At a glance
Population
16.72 million (2020) 26
GDP per capita
USD 1,643 (2019) 27
Political system
Constitutional monarchy
Demographics
Ethnicities
Khmer (95.4%), Cham (2.4%), Chinese (1.5%), Vietnamese (0.2%), Thai (0.5%), Other (0.1%) 28
Languages
Khmer (official language), French, English, Vietnamese, Cham (minority languages) 29
Religions
Buddhism (95%) (Other religions: Christian, Muslim, animist, Baha’i Judaism, Coa Dai) 30
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
52.6% of the population (2021) 31
Top internet service providers
Smart Axiata, Viettel (mobile); Camintel, Camnet, (fixed line) 32
Mobile phone ownership
20.36 million (2020) 33

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Television is by far the most popular medium in Cambodia. It reaches 96% of the Cambodian audience, with 57% reportedly watching TV news. 34 There are currently 22 television stations. Cambodia has 2 state-run channels, 1 public broadcaster and 19 privately owned stations. 35 The Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS) has the largest audience share at 47%. 36

Reach
Kith Meng: Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS) Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
30%
Ing Chhay Nguon. Hang Meas Video Company
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
23%
Kith Meng; Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS)
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
16%
Neang Phat (Defense Secretary); Khantana Mica Media 50% joint venture with the Cambodian Ministry of Defense 50%
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
9%
Hun Mana (oldest daughter of Hun Sen). Bayon Media Hight System Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
4%
Sok Chamroeun; PPCTV Co. Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
3%
Kao Kim Hourn; Southeast Asia TV and Radio FM 106 Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
2%
Kith Meng: Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS) Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
1%
Hun Mana; Bayon Media Hight System Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
1%
PNN
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh Municipality
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Supachai Verapuchong
Phnom Penh
Public (Government of Cambodia)
Phnom Penh

Newspapers

There are 100 newspapers in Cambodia, of which just 50 are active. The newspaper market is highly concentrated: four newspapers control 59% of the market. Print is the least popular medium for Cambodian news consumers, with just 11% reading newspapers or magazines for news. 37

Reach
Yin Phany, Thong Uypang; Koh Santepheap Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
20%
Seng Sitheang; Angkor Thom Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
17%
Say Chhum, Rasmei Kampuchea Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
14%
Hun Mana, Kampuchea Thmey Daily Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
6%
Post Media Co.
English, Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
5%
Soy Sopheap; DAP Media Center
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
2%
Seng Sitheang, Angkor Thom Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
2%
Kaekol Sophea, Nokor Wat Media Center
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
2%
Dam Sith; Moneaksekar Khmer
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
1%
T.Mohan (Mohan Tirvgmanasam Banddam) , Virtus Media Group
English, Khmer
Phnom Penh
Circulation
8,000
Dara Magazine
Seng Sitheang; Angkor Thom Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Cambodian Journalists Alliance
English
Phnom Penh
The Cambodia Daily (closed down)

Radio news

There are 175 radio stations in Cambodia. The four most popular radio stations have 43% of Cambodian listenership. 38

Reach
ABC Cambodia – FM 107.5
Seng Bunveng ‘Aja A’
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
26%
Heng Sovann, Mongkul Sovann Trading Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
6%
Women’s Media Centre
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
6%
Lim Sokcheng, Mohachun
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
5%
Marie Christine Saragosse, Radio France Internationale (rfi)
French
Phnom Penh
Audience share
5%
Mam Sonando, Sonando Co. Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
5%
Town – FM 102.25
Choub Mean
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
5%
Chin Phearum, Tonle Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
4%
Seng Pisey, Vayo Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
4%
Hun Mana, Bayon Media Hight System Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Audience share
3%
Cambodian Centre for Independent Media
English, Khmer
Phnom Penh
DAP Media Centre
Khmer
Phnom Penh

Online news

The internet is the second most popular medium in Cambodia after television. However, online news is not very popular. Among 120 of the most visited websites, only 10 are news websites. 39 Google is the most popular search engine. Sites focused on celebrity news and infotainment rank more highly than news sites. 40 Kbn.news, FreshNewsAsia.com and News.Sabay.com are among the top 50 most-visited online sites. 41

Reach
Marie Christine Saragosse, Radio France Internationale (rfi)
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
38,900
Yin Phanny, Thong Uypang, Koh Santepheap Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
9,930
Scroll
Soy Sopheap, DAP Media Centre
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
9,700
Post Media Co., Ltd
English, Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
9,460
Soy Sopheap, DAP Media Centre
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
8,470
Hun Mana, Kampuchea Thmey Daily Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
6,510
Mengly J. Quach, Cambodian Media Broadcasting Corporation
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
4,910
Vong Moyura, PEN Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
4,880
Hy ChanHan, Q Kube
Khmer
Phnom Penh
Visitors per day
4,800

Social media

Social media is rapidly growing in popularity. There are 9.7 million active social media users in Cambodia, an increase of 1.4 million (17%) from 2019 to 2020. In 2021, Facebook is the most popular platform, used by 89.5% of the population aged 13+. 42 Virtually all Facebook users access the platform via their mobile phones. 43

Reach
Yin Phany, Thong Uypang, Koh Santepheap Co., Ltd
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
5,059,079
Hun Mana, Kampuchea Thmey Daily Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
3,743,586
Kith Meng: Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS)
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
3,726,828
Kith Meng; Cambodian Broadcasting Service (CBS)
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
3,599,150
Neang Phat; Khantana Mica Media 50% joint venture with the Cambodian Ministry of Defense 50%
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
587,894
DAP Media Center
Khmer, English
Phnom Penh
subscribers
486,000
Say Chhum, Rasmei Kampuchea Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
290,582
Kao Kim Hourn; Southeast Asia TV and Radio FM 106 Co., Ltd.
Khmer
Phnom Penh
subscribers
261,000
Ing Chhay Nguon. Hang Meas Video Company
Khmer
Phnom Penh
subscribers
226,000
Seng Sitheang, Angkor Thom Media Group
Khmer
Phnom Penh
followers
134,468

News startups

A 2019 report about ‘redefining civic space’ in Cambodia for the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) paints a grim picture of the capacity for media entrepreneurship in Cambodia. 44 Media is driven by limited advertising revenue rather than by content or creativity, and business acumen is low. The most successful examples of new journalism ventures included Wapatoa, Thmey Thmey and Cambonomist.

China

At a glance
Population
1.44 billion (2020) 45
GDP per capita
USD 10,261 (2019) 46
Political system
Socialist market economy, Communist Party–led state. 47
Number of journalists
According to the Chinese government, there were 231,564 state certified journalists in 2017: 84,761 newspaper journalists; 6,324 magazine journalists; 136,224 radio and TV reporters; 1,406 online news journalists; and 2,849 journalists working in news agencies. 48
Demographics
Ethnicities
Han Chinese (91.6%), 55 recognised minority ethnic groups (8.4%) 49
Languages
Standard Chinese (Putonghua), Yue, Wu, Minbei, Minnan, Xiang 50
Religions
Atheism; five state-recognised religions (Buddhism, Daoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam) 51
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
64.5% (2020) 52
Top internet service providers
China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom 53
Mobile phone ownership
1.592 billion users (2020) 54

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Television is the second most popular medium in China, used by 78% of consumers in 2017. 55 During the Covid-19 pandemic, daily TV viewing increased markedly, particularly for news and drama content. 56 In 2019, the market for TV advertising in China was 134.14 billion yuan (approximately USD 20 billion), but this amount had fallen significantly from 2018, as had spending on radio. 57 In 2016, state media operated 187 TV stations, 2,269 radio and television stations, and 42 educational television stations. 58

Reach
State owned
6 languages
Beijing
Yearly audience share a
33.11%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Hunan
Monthly audience share b
3.00%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Beijing
Monthly audience share b
2.00%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Jiangsu
Monthly audience share b
1.90%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Zhejiang
Monthly audience share b
1.80%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Anhui
Monthly audience share b
1.30%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Guangdong
Monthly audience share b
1.00%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Shandong
Monthly audience share b
0.90%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Heilongjiang
Monthly audience share b
0.80%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Liaoning
Monthly audience share b
0.80%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Jiangxi
Monthly audience share b
0.60%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Hubei
Monthly audience share b
0.50%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Henan
Monthly audience share b
0.50%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Sichuan
Monthly audience share c
0.40%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Guangxi
Monthly audience share c
0.30%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Chongqing
Monthly audience share c
0.30%
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Shanghai
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Hebei
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Fujian
Provincial satellite TV station
Chinese
Jilin

Newspapers

As is the case in other markets in the region, print newspapers are declining in popularity in China. Daily readership fell by half between 2013 and 2018, from 49.6% to 25.4%. 59 In 2017, there were 1,884 newspapers 60 publishing throughout China, employing a total of 84,761 journalists. 61 Some outlets have been forced to close in recent years due to low profit margins and a diminishing audience. At least 30 newspapers closed in 2019. 62

Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese, Tibetan
Beijing
Guangming Daily Newspaper Group
Chinese
Beijing
 Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Beijing
 Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Beijing
South China Bureau of People’s Daily
Chinese
Shenzhen
Nanfang Daily Newspaper Group Co.,Ltd.
Chinese
Guangdong
 Guangzhou Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Guangzhou
 Jiangxi Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Jiangxi
Communist Youth League of China
Chinese
Beijing
 Henan Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Henan
 Zhejiang Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Zhejiang
Guangzhou Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Guangzhou
 Shandongl Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Shandong
Nanfang Media Group
Chinese
Guangzhou
People’s Daily Group
Chinese, English
Beijing
the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party.
English
Beijing
Shanghai Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Shanghai
 Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chinese
Beijing
Xinhua news agency
Chinese
Beijing
Wenhui-xinmin United Press Group.
Chinese
Shanghai

Radio news

Radio broadcasting is mostly consolidated with television broadcasting in China. In 2016, there were 169 radio-only stations in the country, along with 2,269 combined radio and television stations. 63

Reach
China Media Group
Chinese
Beijing
Monthly reach a
95,207,329
Zhejiang Radio & TV Group
Chinese
Zhejiang
Monthly reach b
10,074,465
Jiangsu Provincial Radio & Television Group
Chinese
Jiangsu
Monthly reach b
8,392,185
Beijing Media Network
Chinese
Beijing
Monthly reach b
8,131,588
Hebei Broadcasting & Television Station
Chinese
Hebei
Monthly reach b
7,397,375
Henan Broadcasting and Television Station
Chinese
Henan
Monthly reach b
6,839,435
Hubei Broadcasing &t Television Station
Chinese
Hubei
Monthly reach b
4,009,692
Jilin People’s Broadcasting Station
Chinese
Jilin
Monthly reach b
3,120,971
Guangdong Radio and Television Station
Chinese
Guangdong
Monthly reach b
2,732,954
Guanxi Broadcasting and Television Station
Chinese
Guangxi
Monthly reach b
2,665,589
Fujian Radio & Television Network
Chinese
Fujian
Monthly reach b
2,092,434
Chongqing People’s Broadcasting Station
Chinese
Chongqing
Monthly reach b
1,727,736
Heilongjiang Braodcasting & Television Station
Chinese
Heilongjiang
Monthly reach b
1,603,104
Anhui  Radio & TeleVision Station
Chinese
Anhui
Monthly reach b
1,325,076
Shanxi Radio & Television Station
Chinese
Shanxi
Monthly reach b
824,116
Yunnan Media Group
Chinese
Yunnan
Monthly reach b
769,191
Zhejiang Radio & TV Group
Chinese
Zhejiang
Monthly reach b
753,754
ShanXi Radio & Televiision Station
Chinese
Shanxi
Monthly reach b
682,925
Ningxia  Radio & TeleVision Station
Chinese
Ningxia
Monthly reach b
282,328

Online news

China’s media market is increasingly oriented towards online and social media. In 2017, the internet (excluding social media) was the third most popular media platform in the country (used by 60% of the population). 64 Revenue from internet advertising totalled 436.7 billion yuan (USD 68 billion) in 2019, which accounted for 50.5% of the advertising market. 65 Of this, around 11.8% was spent on news advertising, and 9.9% on advertising on social media. 66 In 2017, 1,406 journalists were employed by online news outlets. 67 The majority of offline media outlets had an online and social media presence in 2019 with websites and accounts on Weibo and WeChat. 68

The China Media Group
Chinese, English, Mongol, Tibetan
Beijing
The China Media Group
Chinese
Beijing
The State Council Information Office
Chinese, English, 8 Others
Beijing
China News Service
Chinese, English
Beijing
China Media Group 
Chinese, English, 42 Others
Beijing
Hualong Newsnet Group
Chinese, English
Chongqing
Shandong Internet Media Group
Chinese
Shandong
Shanghai Orient Webcasting Co.,Ltd.
Chinese, English, Japanese
Shanghai
Shanghai Observer Information Technology Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Shanghai
People’s Daily Online and The Global Times
Chinese
Beijing
Shandong Broadcast TV Station
Chinese
Shandong
Jiangxi Daily Group
Chinese
Jiangxi
Shanghai Press Groupe
Chinese
Shanghai
Sichuan Newsnet Media (Group)
Chinese
Sichuan
People’s Daily Group
Chinese, English, 14 Others
Beijing
Hunan Red Net New Media Group
Chinese
Hunan
Nanfang Media Group
Chinese, English
Guangdong
Shanghai United Media Group
Chinese
Shanghai
Xinhua News Agency
Chinese, English, 8 Others
Beijing
Zhejiang newspaper group
Chinese
Zhejiang

Social media

The most widely used social media platforms in China are state-sanctioned Sina Weibo and WeChat. 69 However, in recent years the market for live-streaming platforms, mobile short video platforms (Douyin, Bilibili) and independent ‘We Media’ news (citizen journalism) has grown substantially. 70 Social media is becoming a significant platform for news consumption. WeChat is the most popular for news, followed by Douyin, Jin Ri Tou Tiao and Weibo. 71

Baidu Tieba
Douban
Douyu
Huya
Kuaishou
LinkedIn
Meipai
Meitu
Sina Weibo
Skype
Slack
Tencent Weibo
WeChat
Xiaohongshu
Yammer
Yizhibo

Hong Kong

At a glance
Population
7.5 million (2020) 72
GDP per capita
USD 48,713 (2020) 73
Political system
Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China 74
Demographics
Ethnicities
Han Chinese (92%), Other (8%) (2016) 75
Languages
Cantonese (88.9%), Standard Chinese (Putonghua) (1.9%), Other Chinese dialects (3.1%), English (4.3%), Other (1.9%) (2016) 76
Religions
No religion (54.7%), Buddhist (13.3%), Christian (14.9%), Folk religions (13%), Hindu (<1%), Jewish (<1%), Muslim (2.1%), Other (1.5%) (2020) 77
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
91.7% (2019) 78
Top internet service providers
Hong Kong Broadband Network (HKBN), Netvigator, China Mobile Hong Kong (CMHK), HGC Global Communications, 3 Hong Kong, i-Cable Communications, CSL Mobile, SmarTone.
Mobile phone ownership
97% of individuals use a mobile device (2019) 79

Impact of Covid-19

As is the case in other markets in North Asia, television news consumption has increased in Hong Kong during the Covid-19 pandemic. 80 The broader impact of the pandemic on Hong Kong’s economy has reduced advertising revenue. This has caused some organisations, such as The South China Morning Post, to cut costs, reduce executive salaries and force staff to take unpaid leave. 81

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Television use for news in Hong Kong has declined slightly, falling from 74% in 2017 to 71% in 2020. 82 The Office of the Communications Authority reports a total TV audience of 6,539,000 individuals in 2019, with free-to-air services reaching approximately 95% of the population (2020). 83 Domestic pay television services are also popular, and have a penetration rate of 77.6%. 84 While online and social media is rising in popularity, TV broadcasters continue to be among the most widely watched and highly trusted sources of news. The leading brands are TVB News (63%), RTHK News (38%) and NowTV News (31%). 85 The most trusted TV sources are NowTV News (trusted by 67% of the population), RTHK News (63%) and i-Cable News (61%). 86

Reach
Television Broadcasts Ltd
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share
63%
Public (The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region)
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share
38%
PCCW OTT (Hong Kong) Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
31%
Hong Kong Cable Television Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
15%

Newspapers

Print news is rapidly declining in popularity in Hong Kong. In 2017, 48% said they used print sources of news but in three years this has declined to a low of 31%. 87 Circulation and revenue have been falling for some time, leading to the closure of the Hong Kong Daily News in 2015 and The Sun in 2016. 88 Hong Kong has a large number of free daily newspapers that enjoy widespread popularity, including AM730, Skypost and Metro Daily. The leading print brands are Headline Daily (34%), Apple Daily (23%) and Oriental Daily News (18%). 89

Reach
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
34%
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share
23%
Oriental Press Group Ltd
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
18%
Shih Wing Ching, Am730 Media Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
18%
Hong Kong Economic Times Holdings Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
15%
Media Chinese International Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
8%
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share
8%
Metro International
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
8%
Hong Kong Economic Times Holdings Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share
6%
English
Hong Kong
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
English
Hong Kong
Sing Pao Media Enterprises Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Sino United Publishing (Holdings) Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Public (Liaison Office of the Central People’s Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region)
Chinese
Hong Kong
Public (Hong Kong Ta Kung Wen Wei Media Group)
Chinese
Hong Kong
Public (Hong Kong Ta Kung Wen Wei Media Group)
Chinese
Hong Kong
Epoch Media Group
Chinese
Canada
HK01 Company Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong
Chinese
Hong Kong

Radio news

There are only three radio broadcasters in Hong Kong: Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company, Radio Television Hong Kong (RTHK) and Metro Broadcast Corporation. In 2020, 29% of Hong Kongers consumed news radio, the same proportion as in 2017. Commercial radio in Hong Kong is used by 13% of Hong Kongers as a source of news. 90 The public broadcaster RTHK also enjoys significant popularity. 91

Reach
Public (The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region)
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share (includes TV)
38%
Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share (includes TV)
1%
Metro Broadcast Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong

Online news

In 2020, 29% of Hong Kong news consumers paid for online news, which is the highest proportion of the eight Asian markets surveyed in the Digital News Report. 92 While the online news market is still dominated by traditional media organisations’ online platforms, some digital-only challenger brands are gaining traction. There are, however, structural barriers to digital journalism in Hong Kong. The government restricts online news outlets by only allowing journalists from traditional media outlets access to press releases and to attend press conferences. 93 TVB News online (39%) is the most popular online brand, followed by Apple Daily online (30%) and RTHK News online (28%). Popular digital-only brands include the general interest site HK01.com (26%) and the more politically oriented Stand News (25%). 94

Reach
Television Broadcasts Ltd.
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share a
39%
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share a
30%
Yahoo! Hong Kong Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
30%
Public (The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region)
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Audience share a
28%
PCCW OTT (Hong Kong) Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
27%
HK01 Company Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
26%
Best Pencil (Hong Kong) Ltd.
Hong Kong
Audience share a
25%
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
24%
Oriental Press Group Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
19%
Shih Wing Ching, Am730 Media Ltd
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
12%
HK Cable Television Ltd .
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
11%
Hong Kong Economic Times Holdings Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
10%
Metro International
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share b
10%
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
10%
Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
10%
Hong Kong Economic Times Holdings Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share b
9%
Media Chinese International Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
Audience share a
8%
AASTOCKS.com Limited
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
English
Hong Kong
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Civic Passion (Political Party)
Chinese
Hong Kong

Social media

The most popular social media platforms used for news in Hong Kong are Facebook (58%), WhatsApp (50%) and YouTube (39%). WeChat is also widely used, but only 16% say they use it as a source of news. 95 In recent years, social media has become a focal point for political advocacy and for mobilising protests in Hong Kong. In this context, the lines between citizen journalism and professional journalism have been blurred. 96 Many online-only news outlets with strong social media presences have a clear advocacy focus in their reporting. 97

Reach
Next Digital
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
followers
2,862,317
Best Pencil (Hong Kong) Ltd.
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
followers
1,666,699
Television Broadcasts Ltd
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
followers
1,440,676
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
1,027,211
Hong Kong Cable Television Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
932,025
Oriental Press Group Ltd
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
755,708
HK01 Company Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
676,980
Global Chinese Network Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
587,311
Hong Kong United Foundation
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
515,732
Civic Passion (Political Party)
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
488,325
Shih Wing Ching, Am730 Media Ltd
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
462,838
Yahoo! Hong Kong Ltd.
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
448,501
CHOW Yung, Robert
Chinese
followers
343,161
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
338,796
Cloud Connect Technology Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
256,269
Sing Tao News Corporation Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
216,511
Cupid Producer Office Ltd
Chinese
followers
183,360
Chinese
followers
177,324
Metro International
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
158,396
PCCW OTT (Hong Kong) Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
followers
147,087
Ng Hiu-tung
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
followers
137,697

News startups

Like newer social media–based news sites, startup journalism in Hong Kong has been shaped by the ongoing protest movements. Some outlets such as Cupid Producer​/​Cupid News have generated a significant following on social media platforms covering both political and general news, often using video footage sourced from the public. The hard news–focused Parity Media was started in April 2020 but has yet to build a significant audience on social media platforms.

Reach
Cupid Producer Office Ltd
Chinese
Facebook followers
183,360
Facebook followers
2,221
Alive! Media & Communications Limited
Chinese

Not-for-profit news outlets

Notable not-for-profit news organisations operating in Hong Kong include CitizenNews and the advocacy-focused Hong Kong Free Press, 98 which boasts a sizable audience online and via social media. As with recent startups, these outlets place a significant focus on watchdog journalism and on covering the ongoing protests. FactWire is an investigative journalism–focused newswire service that provides stories to subscribing news organisations in Hong Kong. Started through crowdfunding in 2015, it publishes news in English and Cantonese, placing a significant focus on challenging government narratives and providing coverage of the ongoing protest movements. 99

Reach
English
Hong Kong
Pageviews in 2020
20 million
Civic Journalists Limited
Chinese
Hong Kong
Ng Hiu-tung
Chinese, English
Hong Kong
Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong
Chinese
Hong Kong

India

At a glance
Population
1.38 billion (2020) 100
GDP per capita
USD 3,000 (2020) 101
Political system
Federal parliamentary democracy 102
Demographics
Ethnicities
Indo-Aryan (72%), Dravidian (25%), Mongoloid and other minority groups (3%) (2000) 103
Languages
Hindi (43.6%), Bengali (8%), Marathi (6.9%), Telugu (6.7%), Tamil (5.7%), Gujurati (4.6%), Urdu (4.2%), Other (20.3%) (2011) 104
Religions
Hindu (79.8%), Muslim (14.2%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh (1.7%), Other (2.0%) (2011) 105
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
50% (2020) 106
Top internet service providers
Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited; Bharti Airtel Limited; Vodafone Idea; Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL); Atria Convergence 107
Mobile phone ownership
70% of Indian adults owned a mobile phone in 2018 108
Active mobile phone users
642.8 million 109

Impact of Covid-19

The coronavirus pandemic has caused a major disruption in India’s media market, particularly among print newspaper organisations. The cancellation of public events, particularly sports, led to a rapid decline in advertising revenue. Subsequently, major media owners such as the Indian Express Group, Bennett Coleman & Company Ltd, and The Hindu announced pay cuts. 110 Smaller and digital-only outlets have also been hit hard, with news website The Quint asking dozens of staff members to go on leave without pay indefinitely. 111 The surge in Covid-19 cases in 2021 took the lives of a number of journalists reporting on the crisis. 112

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

In 2017 television reached 64% of Indians and was watched by 183 million households. 113 The public broadcaster Doordarshan (now operated by Prasar Bharati) was India’s only TV broadcaster until 1991. The market has diversified so quickly that now India has more than 900 channels, including more than 400 news channels. 114 The Republic Media Network owns the popular English-language news channel Republic TV and a commonly watched Hindi news channel, Republic Bharat. 115

TV Today Network Ltd (India Today Group)
Hindi
Noida
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Bengali
Kolkata
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Marathi
Mumbai
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Calcutta Television Network Pvt Ltd
Bengali
Kolkata
TV18 Broadcast Limited (Network18 Media)
English
Noida
Prasar Bharati (Public Broadcaster)
English
New Delhi
Dighvijay 24x7 News
VRL Logistics Limited
Kannada
Bengaluru
TV Today Network Ltd (India Today Group)
English
Noida
Independent News Services Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Noida
Network18 Media and Investment Ltd
Bengali
Kolkata
TV18 Broadcast Limited (Network18 Media)
Hindi
Noida
Network18 Media and Investment Ltd
Kannada
Bengaluru
Network18 Media and Investment Ltd
Marathi
Mumbai
Rachana Television Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
Writemen Media Private Limited
Kannada
Bengaluru
SARG Media Holding Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Mumbai
SARG Media Holding Pvt Ltd
English
Mumbai
Sakal Media Group
Marathi
Mumbai
Jupiter Entertainment Ventures Pvt Ltd
Kannada
Bengaluru
Telangana Rashtra Samithi
Telugu
Hyderabad
Bennett Broadcasting and Distribution Services Ltd (The Times Group)
English
Noida
Shreya Broadcasting Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Noida
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Kannada
Bengaluru
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Marathi
Mumbai
Associated Broadcasting Company Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
VIL Media Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
Zee Media Corporation Ltd (Essel Group)
Bengali
Kolkata
Zee Media Corporation Ltd (Essel Group)
Marathi
Mumbai

Newspapers

India has one of the densest and most contested print markets in the world, with more than 20,000 newspapers and over 120,000 registered periodical publications in 2019–20. 116 Print newspaper readership is in slow decline across all languages, falling 11% in 2019–20 compared to the previous year. 117 The following newspapers had the largest readership in 2019. 118

Reach
Jagran Prakashan Limited
Hindi
Kanpur
Audience share
11.43%
HT Media Ventures Ltd (Hindustan Times Ltd)
Hindi
New Delhi
Audience share
8.51%
Amar Ujala Publications
Hindi
Noida
Audience share
7.49%
D.B. Corporation Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Ahmedabad
Audience share
7.32%
Rajasthan Patrika Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Jaipur
Audience share
2.65%
Neutral Publishing House Ltd
Hindi
Ranchi, Patna, Kolkata
Audience share
2.19%
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Bengali
Kolkata
Audience share
2.07%
Daily Thanthi Group
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
3.76%
Lokmat Media Pvt Ltd
Marathi, Hindi, English
Mumbai
Audience share
2.93%
The Malayala Manorama Co Ltd
Malayalam
Kottayam
Audience share
2.60%
Bennett Coleman and Company Ltd (Times Group)
English
Gurugram
Audience share
2.12%
Ushodaya Enterprises Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
Audience share
2.57%
The Hind Samachar Ltd
Hindi
Jalandhar
Audience share
1.99%
Kal Publications Pvt Ltd (Sun Group)
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
1.96%
Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing Pvt Ltd
Malayalam
Kozhikode
Audience share
1.92%
Lok Prakshan Ltd
Gujarati
Ahmedabad
Audience share
1.91%
Professional Publication Pvt Ltd
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
1.89%
Sakal Papers Pvt Ltd
Marathi
Pune
Audience share
1.70%
The Sandesh Ltd
Gujarati
Ahmedabad
Audience share
1.68%
HT Media Ltd (Hindustan Times Ltd)
English
New Delhi
Audience share
1.11%

Radio news

Radio news is dominated by a single public broadcaster that has a monopoly throughout the country. All India Radio (AIR, officially known as Akashvani) is operated by the public broadcaster Prasar Bharati. It is the only network permitted to produce news, though other stations are permitted to rebroadcast AIR bulletins. 119 The public radio network comprises 227 stations with studios and 252 relay centres. 120 There are also more than 550 FM radio stations across the country. 121 AIR programming is reportedly available to 99.2% of India’s population. 122 Nineteen per cent of India’s population listens to radio. 123

Prasar Bharati (Public Broadcaster)
23 languages
National

Online news

Online news is growing in India. Among English-speaking Indians, most of the top news websites in India by traffic are online portals for newspaper or TV brands. 124 However, the audience for online-only news brands is growing, including alternative startups, bloggers and partisan sites. Mobile phones are by far the most popular device for accessing online news, used by 68% of Indians compared to just 17% who use computers and 3% who use tablets. 125

Reach
Jagran Prakashan Limited
Hindi
Kanpur
Audience share
11.43%
HT Media Ventures Ltd (Hindustan Times Ltd)
Hindi
New Delhi
Audience share
8.51%
Amar Ujala Publications
Hindi
Noida
Audience share
7.49%
D.B. Corporation Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Ahmedabad
Audience share
7.32%
Daily Thanthi Group
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
3.76%
Lokmat Media Pvt Ltd
Marathi, Hindi, English
Mumbai
Audience share
2.93%
Rajasthan Patrika Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Jaipur
Audience share
2.65%
The Malayala Manorama Co Ltd
Malayalam
Kottayam
Audience share
2.60%
Ushodaya Enterprises Pvt Ltd
Telugu
Hyderabad
Audience share
2.57%
Neutral Publishing House Ltd
Hindi
Ranchi, Patna, Kolkata
Audience share
2.19%
Bennett Coleman and Company Ltd (Times Group)
English
Gurugram
Audience share
2.12%
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Bengali
Kolkata
Audience share
2.07%
The Hind Samachar Ltd
Hindi
Jalandhar
Audience share
1.99%
Kal Publications Pvt Ltd (Sun Group)
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
1.96%
Mathrubhumi Printing & Publishing Pvt Ltd
Malayalam
Kozhikode
Audience share
1.92%
Lok Prakshan Ltd
Gujarati
Ahmedabad
Audience share
1.91%
Professional Publication Pvt Ltd
Tamil
Chennai
Audience share
1.89%
Sakal Papers Pvt Ltd
Marathi
Pune
Audience share
1.70%
The Sandesh Ltd
Gujarati
Ahmedabad
Audience share
1.68%
HT Media Ltd (Hindustan Times Ltd)
English
New Delhi
Audience share
1.11%
Network18 Media and Investment Ltd
English, Hindi
Noida
Greynium Information Technologies
English, 7 Indian Languages
Bengalur
Printline Media Pvt Ltd
English
New Delhi

Social media

Indians have embraced social media enthusiastically. In 2019, 82% of people aged 16–64 had used YouTube in the past month, followed by Facebook (76%), WhatsApp (70%) and Instagram (64%). 126 A study of English-speaking Indian news users by the Reuters Institute found that social media ranks as an important source of news, with 52% accessing news via Facebook and WhatsApp. 127

Reach
Bennett Coleman and Company Ltd
English
Gurugram
followers
10,000,000
ITV Network
Hindi, English
subscribers
1,270,000
Jagran Prakashan Limited
Hindi
Kanpur
followers
15,057,747
HT Media Ventures Ltd (Hindustan Times Ltd)
Hindi
New Delhi
followers
2,579,905
Amar Ujala Publications
Hindi
Noida
followers
8,087,286
Independent News Service Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Noida
followers
15,670,084
Ananda Bazar Patrika (ABP) Group
Bengali
Kolkata
followers
6,431,834
TV18 Broadcast Limited (Network18 Media)
Hindi
Noida
followers
7,501,781
TV Today Network Ltd (India Today Group)
Hindi, English
New Delhi
subscribers
42,100,000
Independent News Service Pvt Ltd
Hindi
Noida
subscribers
22,900,000
New Delhi Television Limited
Hindi
New Delhi
subscribers
9,190,000

News startups

As the popularity of social media grows in India, some journalists have broken away from large, traditional news outlets to help form online-only outlets that aim to fund journalism through a burgeoning digital advertising market. 128 Significant new players include The Quint, a news website founded by two former media executives who split from Network18, and Scroll.in, founded by former editor-in-chief of Time Out India Naresh Fernandes and businessman Samir Patil. The Quint focuses on mobile-first and social-first content, and both The Quint and Scroll.in market themselves as producers of quality investigative, informative and entertaining news for the younger and more affluent.

Quintillion Media Pvt Ltd
English, Hindi
New Delhi
Scroll Media Inc
English
New Delhi

Not-for-profit news outlets

The rise of not-for-profit journalism in India has coincided with a broader political shift towards populism and nationalism. 129 As such, the character of foundation and donation-funded outlets like The Wire reflects a renewed focus on independent political and investigative journalism. Founded by journalists in 2015, The Wire markets itself as a breakaway from what it says is a compromised media system beset by corruption and declining editorial standards. 130

Foundation for Independent Journalism
English, Hindi, Marathi, Urdu
New Delhi

Indonesia

At a glance
Population
273.6 million (2020) 131
GDP per capita
USD 4,135 (2019) 132
Political system
Presidential republic 133
Number of journalists
There are more than 16,500 certified journalists according to Indonesia’s Press Council database (2020). 134
Demographics
Ethnicities
Javanese (40.2%), Sundanese (15.5%), Batak (3.6%), Madurese (3.0%), Betawi (2.9%), Buginese (2.7%), Minangkabau (2.7%), Malay (2.3%), Other (29.4%) (2010) 135
Languages
Javanese (31.8%), Bahasa Indonesia (19.9%) (official language), Sundanese (15.1%), Malay (3.6%), Madurese (3.6%), Other (26.1%) (2010) 136
Religions
Islam (87.2%), Christian (7.0%), Catholic (2.9%), Hindu (1.7%), Buddhist (<1%), Other (<1%) (2010) 137
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
73.7% (2021) 138
Top internet service providers
Telkom (public provider), Indosat Ooredoo, XL Axiata 139
Mobile phone ownership
98.3% ownership (2021) 140

Impact of Covid-19

In the first month of the coronavirus pandemic, media consumption surged in Indonesia, with TV news viewership increasing by more than 25%. 141 Media companies have faced financial stress due to declining advertising revenue, and industry representatives have requested subsidies and assistance from the government to help weather the pandemic. 142 In August 2020, The Jakarta Post announced it would be reducing salaries and would reduce it staff numbers to only 50–60. 143

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

To date, there has been little reliable and accessible data about news consumption trends in Indonesia. Generally, television is popular in Indonesia, and audiences have much to choose from. In addition to the public broadcaster, Televisi Republik Indonesia, there are 14 private broadcasters, 900 subscription channels, 50 alternative media channels and 300 local TV channels operating in the market. The public broadcaster is particularly popular. The leading private channels included SCTV (17.1%), TransTV (7.5%), TvOne (3.1%) and Metro TV (1.4%). TV advertising was expected to amount to almost USD 1.4 billion in 2020. 144

Visi Media Asia
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Elang Mahkota Teknologi
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Group
Bahasa, English
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Elang Mahkota Teknologi
Bahasa
Jakarta
Trans Media
Bahasa
Jakarta
Trans Media
Bahasa
Jakarta
Visi Media Asia
Bahasa
Jakarta
Government of Indonesia
Bahasa, English
Jakarta

Newspapers

Newspaper consumption in Indonesia is falling. Despite this, some major publications in Indonesia, such as Jawa Pos (842,000 readers) and Kompas (751,000 readers), still have significant daily circulations. 145 Of the hundreds of newspapers operating in Indonesia, most are organised under eight large publishing corporations: Jawa Pos, Kompas Gramedia Group, Pin Point, Femina, Pikiran Rakyat, Bali Post, Bisnis Indonesia and Suara Merdeka. 146

Bisnis Indonesia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
BeritaSatu Media Holdings
Bahasa, English
Jakarta
Jawa Pos Group
Bahasa
Surabaya
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa, English
Jakarta
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Tempo Inti Media
Bahasa, English
Jakarta
Media Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Grup Pikiran Rakyat
Bahasa
Bandung
Jawa Pos Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Mahaka Media
Bahasa, English
Jakarta
Suara Merdeka Network
Bahasa
Semarang
Lestari Kala Media
English
Seminyak
Niskala Media Tenggara
Bahasa
Jakarta

Radio news

The public broadcaster, Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), is required to provide coverage throughout Indonesia and is widely available, even in regional and remote areas. Commercial radio is also popular, with brands such as MNC, Sonora and Elshinta providing coverage across the Indonesian region. 147 With a growing tendency to listen to radio via the internet, and a relatively young listener audience in Indonesia, the prospects for radio use in the future are positive. 148

Online news

As smartphone ownership and mobile internet penetration has increased, Indonesians have significantly lifted their consumption of online news. 149 According to the Indonesian Press Council, there are 773 registered online news outlets in Indonesia. 150 Advertising on mobile devices and on the internet together accounted for approximately USD 2.3 billion in spending in 2018, making online spending the largest segment for advertising in the market. 151

Trans Media
Bahasa
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Mainstream Media Ltd
English
Jawa Pos Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Grup Pikiran Rakyat
Bahasa
Bandung
Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media)
Bahasa
Jakarta
Tempo Media Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
Viva Networks
Bahasa
Jakarta

Social media

Social media has become a central part of life for many in Indonesia, with nearly 60% of the population actively using social media. 152 YouTube is the most popular social media platform among 16 to 64 year olds (88%), followed by WhatsApp (84%), Facebook (82%) and Instagram (79%). Almost all social media activity (99%) is conducted via mobile phone. 153

Reach
BeritaSatu Media Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
followers
2,700,000
Trans Media and WarnerMedia
Bahasa
USA, Jakarta
subscribers
6,570,000
Niskala Media Tenggara
English, Bahasa
Jakarta
followers
1,500,000
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
subscribers
7,080,000
Journalist’s official account
Bahasa
subscribers
6,320,000
BeritaSatu Media Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
followers
390,104
Kompas Gramedia Group
Bahasa
Jakarta
subscribers
3,650,000
Visi Media Asia
Bahasa
Jakarta
subscribers
4,010,000

Not-for-profit news outlets

Japan

At a glance
Population
126.5 million (2020) 154
GDP per capita
USD 40,247 (2020) 155
Political system
Constitutional monarchy
Number of journalists
Approximately 18,400 (2018) 156
Demographics
Ethnicities
Japanese (98.1%), Other (1.9%) (2015) 157
Languages
Japanese (99%)
Religions
Shintoism (69%), Buddhism (66.7%) 158, Christianity (1.5%), Other (6.2%) (2018) 159
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
93% (2021) 160
Top internet service providers
NTT, KDDI, Softbank Group, au 161
Mobile phone ownership
94.1% ownership (2021) 162

Impact of Covid-19

The pandemic has had a substantial negative effect on Japan’s economy, resulting in job losses in a number of sectors. Japan’s information and communication sector has fared better than other industries, with the biggest job losses falling on hospitality, restaurant and travel industries, as well as on temporary and foreign employees. 163

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Alongside the popular and trusted public broadcaster NHK, the five largest private broadcasters—Fuji TV, Nippon TV, TBS, TV Asahi and TV Tokyo—dominate Japan’s television market. Television news remains popular in Japan despite a slow decline in recent years. In 2020, 60% of news consumers used TV as a general source of news, and 45% said it was their main source of news. 164 Terrestrial TV accounted for 27.3% of the total advertising market in 2017. 165 Ninety-five private broadcasters employed approximately 26,000 individuals in 2018. NHK, which is one of the largest news organisations in Japan, employed approximately 10,000 people, of which between 400 and 500 were journalists. 166

Reach
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
48%
Nippon Television Network Corporation​/​Yomiuri Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
45%
TV Asahi Holdings Corporation​/​Asahi Shimbun Company
Japanese
Osaka
Audience share
41%
Fuji Television Network, Inc./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
38%
Tokyo Broadcasting System Television Inc./Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
38%
Nikkei Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
17%
Nagoya Broadcasting Network Co.,Ltd./Asahi Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
Public Broadcaster (United Kingdom)
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
3%
Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Nagoya
Chukyo TV Broadcasting Co., Ltd./Yomiuri Shimbun
Japanese
Nagoya
Kansai Television Co. Ltd./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
Osaka, Koyoto, Nara, Shiga, Wakayama, Hyogo
Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc./Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
Osaka
Nagoya Broadcasting Network Co.,Ltd./Asahi Shimbun
Japanese
Nagoya
Tokai Television Co. Ltd./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
Aichi, Gifu, Mie
Tokyo Metropolitan Television Broadcasting Corporation​/​Chunichi Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo
Aichi Television Broadcasting Co.,LTD./The Nikkei
Japanese
Nagoya
Television Osaka, Inc./The Nikkei
Japanese
Osaka
Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, Inc./Yomiuri Shimbun
Japanese
Tokyo

Newspapers

Newspapers were used by around 27% of Japanese news consumers in 2020, a significant fall from 63% in 2013. 167 The media market is tightly integrated, with each of the five most popular newspapers having linked ownership with one of the five major commercial TV broadcasting corporations: Yomiuri Shimbun (linked with Nippon TV), Asahi Shimbun (with TV Asahi), Mainichi Shimbun (with TBS Television), Sankei Shimbun (with Fuji TV) and Nihon Keizai Shimbun (with TV Tokyo). 168

Reach
Yomiuri Group
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
14%
The Asahi Shimbun Co.
Japanese
Osaka
Audience share
10%
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
7%
The Mainichi Newspapers Company
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
Sankei Shimbun Co Ltd, Fuji Media Holdings
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
Bungeishunju Ltd.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
The Chugoku Shimbun Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Shimane, Okayama, Tottori
Chunichi Shimbun Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Aichi
The Hokkaido Shimbun Press
Japanese
Hokkaido
Jomo Shimbun, Inc.
Japanese
Gunma
Kahoku Shimpo Publishing Co.
Japanese
Sendai
The Kobe Shimbun Co.,Ltd.
Japanese
Kobe
The Kyoto Shimbun Co.,Ltd.
Japanese
Kyoto
The Niigata Nippo Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Niigata
The Nishinippon Shimbun Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Fukuoka
The Sanyo Shimbun Co., Ltd
Japanese
Okayama
Shimotsuke Shimbun Ltd
Japanese
Tochigi
The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
Nagano
The Shizuoka Shimbun Co. Ltd
Japanese
Shizuoka
Chunichi Shimbun Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Tokyo
The Hokkoku Shimbun Inc.
Japanese
Toyama

Radio news

Broadcast radio is the least popular form of media in Japan. In 2020, only 13% of consumers said they used commercial radio as a source of news, and only 3.5% said it was their main source of news. 169 Radio is most popular among older consumers, with the nationally broadcast NHK ‘Radio-1’ being most popular with listeners over 60 years of age and commercial stations being popular with those aged 50 years and older. 170

Asahi Radio Broadcasting Corporation​/​Asahi Shimbun
Japanese
National
Chubu-Nippon Broadcasting.Co.,Ltd./Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
Nagoya
FM Aichi Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Aichi
FM802 Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Osaka
FM OSAKA Broadcasting Co.,Ltd./The Nikkei
Japanese
Osaka
FM802 Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Osaka
InterFM897 Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Tokyo
J-WAVE Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc./Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
National
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
National
Japanese
National
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
National
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
National
Nippon Broadcasting System, Inc./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
National
Nippon Cultural Broadcasting Inc./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
National
Osaka Broadcasting Corporation​/​Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
Osaka
TBS Radio, Inc./Mainichi Shimbun
Japanese
National
Tokai Radio Broadcasting Company Ltd./Sankei Shimbun
Japanese
Aichi, Gifu, Mie
TOKYO FM Broadcasting​/​The Nikkei
Japanese
Tokyo
ZIP-FM Co., Ltd.
Japanese
Aichi

Online news

Japan’s market for online news appears to be declining. More than four-fifths of news consumers (85%) said they used online news (including social media) in 2013. This fell to 62% in 2020. 171 The market is dominated by the web portal Yahoo! News, which was reportedly visited by 58% of news consumers in 2020, significantly more than its nearest competitor, NHK News online (11%). 172

Reach
Yahoo! Japan Corporation (Softbank Group & Yahoo!)
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
58%
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
11%
Yomiuri Telecasting Corp.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
10%
The Asahi Shimbun Company
Japanese
Osaka
Audience share
8%
Fuji Media Holdings Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
8%
The Asahi Shimbun Co.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
7%
Nikkei Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
7%
Tokyo Broadcasting System Television Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
7%
Yomiuri Group
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
6%
Microsoft Corporation
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
5%
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
5%
CyberAgent, TV Asahi Holdings Corp
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
Sankei Shimbun Co Ltd, Fuji Media Holdings
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
4%
The Mainichi Newspapers Company
Japanese
Tokyo
Audience share
3%

Social media

The most popular social media apps are YouTube (74.3%) and the messaging app Line (69.6%). 173 However, only 19% of consumers used YouTube to access news in 2020. The figures for Line, Twitter and Facebook were 16%, 15% and 6%. 174 Trust in news found on social media is also low (20%), though this is higher than in South Korea (16%), Australia (17%) and Hong Kong (18%). 175

Reach
TV Asahi Holdings Group
Japanese
Tokyo
subscribers
1,500,000
Fuji Media Holdings Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
subscribers
550,000
Nikkei Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
subscribers
722,000
Vice Media
Japanese
subscribers
613,000
Tokyo Broadcasting System Television Inc.
Japanese
Tokyo
subscribers
261,000
The Mainichi Newspapers Company
Japanese
Tokyo
followers
395,400
Public Broadcaster
Japanese
Tokyo
followers
3,000,000
Yomiuri Group
Japanese
Tokyo
followers
766,400
TV Asahi Holdings Corporation​/​Asahi Shimbun Company
Japanese
Osaka
followers
1,200,000
Huffington Post
Japanese
followers
334,500
Sankei Shimbun Co Ltd, Fuji Media Holdings
Japanese
Tokyo
followers
553,200

News startups

Newspicks Incorporated
Japanese
Tokyo

Not-for-profit news outlets

Independent journalism in Japan is difficult due to the dominance of the kisha kurabu (press club) system in Japan. The system blocks access to press conferences to non-members such as foreign media outlets and freelancers. One news organisation pushing against the grain is the Tokyo Investigative Newsroom ‘Tansa’ (formerly the Waseda Chronicle). Tansa is a not-for-profit, digital-only outlet that developed out of an investigative journalism project started at the Waseda University Journalism Institute. 176

Malaysia

At a glance
Population
32.4 million (2020) 177
GDP per capita
USD 11,414 (2019) 178
Political system
Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy 179
Demographics
Ethnicities
Bumiputera (69.6%), Chinese (22.6%), Indian (6.8%), Others (1.0%) (2020) 180
Languages
Bahasa Malaysia (official), English, Chinese languages, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai 181
Religions
Islam (61.3%), Buddhism (19.8%), Christianity (9.2%), Hinduism (6.3%), Other (3.4%) (2010) 182
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
84.2% (Jan 2021) 183
Top internet service providers
Telekom Malaysia, Maxis, Celcom, TIME 184
Mobile phone ownership
99.2% ownership (2021) 185

Impact of Covid-19

There are concerns the government is increasingly labelling critical media reports as ‘fake news’ and using the need to maintain social distancing as a means to limit news outlets’ access to press briefings. 186

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Television is the most popular traditional medium: it is watched by 90% of Malaysians. 187 In 2017, Malaysia’s broadcasting market was worth approximately USD 1.87 billion. In 2018, there was 1 government-run and 4 private stations broadcasting 14 free-to-air television channels. Four of these channels are owned and run by the government’s Radio Televisyen Malaysia (RTM). 188 There is also a sizeable pay TV market: in 2020, 87% of households subscribed to pay TV. 189 Despite the popularity of TV, only 50% of Malaysians rely on it for news. In 2020, the pay TV news service Astro Awani was the most trusted news brand (62%), followed by the national broadcaster RTM (58%). 190

Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Astro Malaysia Holdings
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Public Broadcaster
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
TV9 News
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
NTV7 News
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
8TV news
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
TV Alhijrah
Public Broadcaster
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Public Broadcaster
Malay
Kuala Lumpur

Newspapers

Print news media consumption has fallen sharply since 2017, from 45% to 30% in 2020. 191 There is no official list of all newspapers in Malaysia; however, in 2017 Malaysia’s newspaper market was valued at USD 1.35 billion. 192 The Star, local and regional newspapers, and New Strait Times were the third, fourth and fifth most trusted news brands in 2020. 193

Reach
Media Chinese International Ltd
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Daily circulation a
277,644
Malay
Petaling Jaya
Daily circulation a
199,154
Media Mulia
Malay
Petaling Jaya
Daily circulation a
136,692
Chinese
Kuching
Daily circulation a
85,755
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Audience share b
25%
Star Media Group
English
Petaling Jaya
Audience share b
24%
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Audience share b
21%
Media Prima Bhd
English
Kuala Lumpur
Audience share b
11%
Berjaya Media
English
Kuala Lumpur
Audience share b
8%
KTS Group
English
Kuching
Media Chinese International Ltd
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Sabah Publishing House
English
Kota Kinabula
Media Chinese International Ltd
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Media Chinese International Ltd
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
The Edge Media Group
English
Petaling Jaya

Radio news

Around 20 million Malaysians tune in to radio each week. Malaysian-language stations are the most popular, reaching around 63% of the audience. 194 The Korean Press Foundation states there are 24 private and 34 government-owned radio stations. 195 While access to local news is one of the top three motivations for listening to radio in Malaysia, 196 only 15% of news consumers get their news from radio. 197

Public Broadcaster
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Public Broadcaster
Malay
Kuala Lumpur

Online news

According to the country’s leading online news site, Malaysiakini.com, online news media in Malaysia are under less government control than traditional newspaper and broadcast outlets because they are not subject to the same licencing arrangements. However, online news media face the same laws restricting freedom of speech. 198 The use of online news sources remained steady from 2017 to 2020, with 86% of news consumers accessing news via the internet (including social media). 199 Increasingly, Malaysians are using their smartphones to get online news: smartphone use rose from 65% in 2017 to 81% in 2020, while computer use to access news fell from 45% to 40% over the same period. 200

Reach
Mkini Group
Multiple
Audience share
45%
Astro Malaysia Holdings
Multiple
Audience share
35%
Star Media Group
English
Audience share
30%
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Audience share
25%
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Audience share
24%
Karang Kraf Group
Malay
Audience share
20%
English
Audience share
16%
Public Broadcaster
Multiple
Audience share
15%
English
Audience share
15%
Media Prima Bhd
English
Audience share
10%
Malay Mail Sdn Bhd
English
Audience share
8%
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Kwong Wah Yit Poh Press
Chinese
Chinese
Media Prima Bhd
English
KTS Group
Chinese
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Multiple
Berjaya Media
English

Social media

WhatsApp is the most popular social media platform in Malaysia (used by 81% of Malaysians). However, Facebook is preferred specifically for accessing news (57%). WhatsApp (51%), YouTube (33%), Instagram (20%) and Twitter (15%) follow. 201

Astro Malaysia Holdings
Multiple
Kuala Lumpur
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
English
Petaling Jaya
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Chinese
Kuala Lumpur
English
Kuala Lumpur
Malay
Kuala Lumpur
Media Prima Bhd
English
Kuala Lumpur
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Media Chinese International
Chinese
Petaling Jaya
Karang Kraf Group
Multiple
Selangor
Star Media
English
Petaling Jaya
Media Prima Bhd
Malay
Kuala Lumpur

Myanmar

At a glance
Population
54.4 million (2020) 202
GDP per capita
USD 1,407 (2019) 203
Political system
Parliamentary republic 204
Number of journalists
Approximately 4,000 in 2017 205
Demographics
Ethnicities
Bamar (68%), Shan (9%), Karen (7%), Rakhine (4%), Chinese (3%), Other (9%). The country recognises 135 ethnic groups (2014). 206
Languages
Burmese is the official language. There are many local ethnic languages. 207
Religions
Buddhist with (87.9%), Christian (6.2%), Muslim (4.3%), Animist (0.8%), Hindu (0.5%), other (0.3%) (2014) 208
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
43.3% (2021) 209
Top internet service providers
MPT, MEC, Telenor and Ooredoo 210

Impact of Covid-19

A survey of 36 media outlets conducted by the Media Development Investment Fund in June 2020 found that half had lost more than 75% of their revenue, and some newspaper operations were forced to reduce or stop publication. A large majority (32) of the surveyed outlets were forced to cut salaries or staff and to reduce their use of freelancers. 211 The government also used Covid-19 to crack down on journalists and other for spreading ‘false’ information, leading to concerns about freedom of expression during the pandemic. 212

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

TV is the main source of news in Myanmar. Its popularity has grown slightly in recent years, rising from 25% in 2014 to 32% in 2019. 213 There are three free-to-air channels, two pay-TV channels and five digital licences, but broadcasting is dominated by two state-owned companies: Myanmar Radio and Television (MRTV) and the military broadcaster Myawaddy TV (MWD). 214 Several private companies have obtained digital broadcasting licences, but they struggle to attract advertising. 215

Democratic Voice of Burma
Burmese, English
Thailand
Mizzima Media Co. Ltd.
Burmese
Yangon
Shwe Than Lwin Media Company Limited
Myanmar
Yangon
Government of Myanmar
Myanmar
Yangon
Government of Myanmar
Myanmar
Yangon
Government of Myanmar
English
Yangon
Myanmar Military
Myanmar
Yangon
Shwe Than Lwin Media Company Limited
Myanmar
Yangon
Young Investment Group Company Limited
Myanmar
Yangon

Newspapers

A large number of privately owned newspapers (28) obtained operating licences in Myanmar in 2013. 216 However, by 2018 only 11 of them had survived. 217 In 2019, only 4% of the population frequently used newspapers as a source of news, down from 8% in 2014. 218 Government-run newspapers tend to have the highest circulation, attract the most advertising and have a lower cover price. This makes it hard for private newspapers to compete. 219

Reach
Government of Myanmar
Yangon
Daily circulation
120,000
Government of Myanmar
Yangon
Daily circulation
80,000
Eleven Media Group
Yangon
Daily circulation
30,000
7 Day
Information Matrix Co. Ltd.
Yangon
Daily circulation
8,000
Ceased Publication
Yangon
Daily circulation
7,000
Dawei
Black Knight Media Co. Ltd
Yangon
Government of Myanmar
Yangon
Kantarawaddy Times
Demoso
Private
Hpa-An
Magway Journal
Magway
Mizzima Media Co. Ltd.
Yangon
Mon News Agency
Mawlamyaing
Monywa
Myanmar Consolidated Media Company Ltd.
Yangon
Myanmar Military
Yangon
Myitkyina News Journal
Myitkyina
Tanintharyi Weekly
Private
Dawei
Hakha
Yangon
Matupi
Singapore Press Holdings Ltd.
Yangon
Yangon
The Voice Daily News
Yangon
The Yadanabon
Government of Myanmar
Mandalay

Radio news

Radio plays a small role in Myanmar’s news media landscape. In 2019 there was one state-controlled radio station and nine FM stations that were jointly owned by the state and private owners. 220 There are also several online radio services. 221 All the FM stations must rebroadcast news from state-operated MRTV twice each day. People seeking independent radio news listen to the BBC, Radio Free Asia (RFA) or Voice of America (VOA). 222 The percentage of the population that frequently uses radio as a source of news dropped from 34% in 2014 to 12% in 2019. 223

Government of Myanmar
Burmese
Yangon
Shwe Than Lwin Media Company Limited
Myanmar
Yangon
Padamyar FM Media Company Limited
Burmese
Yangon
Cherrry FM Radio Station
Burmese
Yangon
Democratic Voice of Burma
Burmese, English
Thailand
Yangon City Development Committee
Burmese
Yangon
Mandalay City Development Committee​/​Forever Group Company Limited
Burmese
Pyin U Lwin
United States of America
Burmese
Forever Group Company Limited
Yangon
FM Bagan
Burmese
Yangon
Government of Myanmar
Burmese
Yangon
United States of America
English, Burmese
USA
Community Radio
Burmese
Htan Tabin

Online news

The number of online news sites has been growing in Myanmar, particularly in regional parts of the country. However, only 1–2% of the population mainly access the news via websites, instead preferring to access news outlets via Facebook. 224

Information Matrix Co. Ltd.
Burmese
Yangon
Burmese
Hinthada, Ayeyarwaddy
Burma News International
English
Yangon
Burmese
Dawei
Burmese
Hinthada, Ayeyarwaddy
Democratic Voice of Burma
Burmese, English
Thailand
Black Knight Media Co. Ltd
English
Yangon
Guiding Star Journal
Mon
Mawlamyine
Kantarawaddy Times
Burmese, Karenni, English
Demoso
Private
Karen
Burmese
Magway
Burmese
Mandalay
Mizzima Media Co. Ltd.
Burmese
Yangon
Myanmar Consolidated Media Company Ltd.
English, Burmese
Yangon
Mon News Agency
Burmese, Mon, English
Mawlamyaing
English
Yangon
English
Dubai
Myanmar Now Company Limited
Burmese, English
Yangon
Myanmar Military
Burmese
Yangon
Private
English
Burmese, English
Shan Herald Agency for News
Burmese
Taunggyi
Than Lwin Times Journal
Burmese
Mawlamyine
Hahka, Burmese
Hakha
Hahka, Burmese
Hakha
Irrawaddy Publishing Group
English
Yangon
Burmese
Magway
Burmese
Yangon
Burmese
Myitkyina
Voice of Myanmar
Burmese
Mandalay

Social media

Facebook is rapidly becoming the most popular way to access news. In 2019, 28% of the population used Facebook as their main gateway to news, compared with none of the population in 2014. 225 The majority of news organisations also maintain Facebook pages, and many have a YouTube presence. However, social media–only news offerings are also emerging. 226

Reach
Information Matrix Co. Ltd.
Burmese
Yangon
followers
25,073,966
Eleven Media Group
English
Yangon
followers
19,337,195
United States of America
Burmese
followers
12,852,582
Kayamut Media
English, Burmese
Yangon
followers
6,350,210
Myanmar Consolidated Media Company Ltd.
English, Burmese
Yangon
followers
5,122,208
English, Burmese
followers
3,228,362
The Voice Daily News
Burmese
Yangon
followers
1,934,069
Asian Fame Media Group
Burmese
Yangon
followers
1,630,702
Burmese, Ta'ang-Palaung
Lashio
followers
154,898
Burmese
Magway
followers
115,355
Tedim, Chin
Tedim, Chin State
followers
76,516
Zomi, Myanmar
Kalay
followers
9,003

Not-for-profit news outlets

Democratic Voice of Burma
Burmese, English
Thailand
English, Rohingya
Arkan
Myanmar Now Company Limited
Burmese, English
Yangon
Shan Herald Agency for News
Burmese
Taunggyi
Irrawaddy Publishing Group
English
Yangon

Philippines

At a glance
Population
109.6 million (2020) 227
GDP per capita
USD 3,485 (2019) 228
Political system
Constitutional republic with representative democracy
Demographics
Ethnicities
Tagalog (24.4%), Bisaya/Binisaya (11.4%), Cebuano (9.9%), Ilocano (8.8%), Hiligaynon/Ilonggo (8.4%), Bikol/Bicol (6.8%), Waray (4.0%), Other local ethnic groups (26.1%), Other (<1%) (2010) 229
Languages
Filipino (based on Tagalog, official), English (official), and major dialects, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bikol, Hiligaynon, Waray, Pampangan, Pangasinan, Maguindanao 230
Religions
Christian religions (92.2%), Muslim (5.6%), Other (2.2%) (2010) 231
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
72% (2020) 232
Top internet service providers
Globe Telecom, Philippine Long-Distance Telephone Company, Converge ICT Solutions, One Sky 233
Mobile phone ownership
98.6% ownership (2021) 234

Impact of Covid-19

The pandemic and the various lockdowns instituted throughout the country have had a significant effect on journalists. Newspaper circulation and advertising revenue has declined, and some outlets are under significant financial pressure. 235 Government authorities have also used the pandemic to restrict journalists’ movements and to arrest those who are critical of the administration. 236

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Prior to May 2020, the Philippines television market was heavily dominated by two cross-media organisations, ABS-CBN and the GMA Network. Television was used as a source of news by 66% of Filipino news consumers, with 61% watching ABS-CBN and its affiliates, and 53% viewing the news via GMA Network channels. 237

Reach
Kapamilya Network (Lopez Inc.)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
37.58%
GMA Network, Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
35.95%
TV 5 Network (MediaQuest Holdings Inc.)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
7.60%
GMA Network, Inc. and Zoe Broadcasting Network
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
3.78%
Nine Media Corp. (JRLT-JHI Corp)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
0.45%
Presidential Communications Operations Office (Public Broadcaster)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
0.39%
TV5 Network Inc.; National Broadcasting Corporation; MediaQuest Holdings Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
0.29%
Progressive Broadcasting Corporation
Filipino
Manila
Audience share
0.20%
Solar Entertainment Corp. (Southern Broadcasting Network)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
0.15%
Presidential Communications Operations Office (Public Broadcaster)
Filipino, English
Manila
Audience share
0.15%
Iglesia ni Cristo (Religious Organisation)
Filipino, English
Manila
Iglesia ni Cristo (Religious Organisation)
Filipino, English
Manila

Newspapers

Covid-19 has significantly affected the print news industry in the Philippines. The Philippines Press Institute reported that in 2020 at least 11 publications across the archipelago were either switching to digital-only or temporarily ceasing publication. 238 Popular newspapers in metropolitan areas include The Philippine Daily Inquirer and Philippine Star, both of which have popular online presences. In 2020, 22% of consumers said they used print news as a source of news. 239

Reach
Sison’s Publishing Corporation
Filipino
Quezon City
Reach
1.92%
Monica Publishing Corporation
Filipino
Manila
Reach
1.17%
Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp.
English
Manila
Reach
0.80%
Hastings Holdings Inc.
Filipino
Manila
Reach
0.65%
Inquirer Holdings Corporation
English
Manila
Reach
0.65%
Inquirer Holdings Corporation
Filipino, English
Manila
Reach
0.55%
Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp.
Filipino
Manila
Reach
0.38%
Monica Publishing Corporation
Filipino
Manila
Reach
0.27%
Hastings Holdings Inc.
English
Manila
Reach
0.24%
Philippine Journalists Inc.
English
Manila
Reach
0.12%
Antonio Cabangon-Chua
English
Manila
Reach
0.02%
Hastings Holdings Inc.
English
Manila
Philippine Journalists Inc.
English
Manila
Philippine Journalists Inc.
English
Manila
SunStar Publishing Inc.
English
Cebu City

Radio news

Although radio news is only consumed by a small portion of the population, the medium has played an important role in the country’s history and continues to connect regional and remote communities throughout the archipelago. 240 One-fifth (22%) of Filipinos say they use a regional or local TV or radio news station as a source of news. This reflects the Philippines largely decentralised population. 241 In metro Manila, popular sources of news include DZMM (Radyo Patrol), Super Radyo DZBB (Super Balita) and DZRH News. 242

GMA Network Inc.
Filipino
Manila
Public Broadcaster
Filipino
Manila
Manila Broadcasting Company (Elizalde family)
Filipino
Manila
Interactive Broadcast Media Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
Progressive Broadcasting Corporation
Filipino, English
National
Radyo Veritas Global Broadcasting System, Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
TV 5 Network (MediaQuest Holdings Inc.)
Filipino
Manila

Online news

The online news market in the Philippines is generally dominated by online platforms run by traditional major media organisations such as GMA News and The Philippine Daily Inquirer. The Yahoo! News aggregator is also used by 36% of consumers. Online news is used by 60% of news consumers, making it the third most popular medium for news after television and social media. 243 Due to the large English-speaking population, international brands, including CNN.com, BuzzFeed News and BBC News online, are also popular with news consumers.

ABS-CBN Corporation (Lopez Inc)
Filipino, English
Manila
GMA Network, Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
Inquirer Holdings Corporation
English
Manila
Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company
English
Manila
People’s Independent Media Inc. (Amado Macasaet)
English
Manila
Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. (U.S. Automotive Company Inc.)
English
Manila
Hastings Holdings Inc.
English
Manila
Rappler Holdings Corporation
Filipino, English
Manila
SunStar Publishing Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
Tribune Publishing (Olivares family)
Filipino, English
Manila

Social media

The widespread use of smartphones and mobile devices means that social media platforms are a major source of news in the Philippines. Three-quarters (73%) of Filipino news consumers say they use Facebook as a source of news. 244 Filipinos are routinely rated as among the heaviest social media users in the world, with 99% of internet users using at least one social media platform. 245

Reach
ABS-CBN Corporation (Lopaz Inc)
Filipino, English
Manila
subscribers
10,200,000
Filipino, English
followers
4,607,197
GMA Network, Inc.
Filipino, English
Manila
subscribers
7,280,000
Filipino, English
followers
500,642
Rappler Holdings Corporation
Filipino, English
Manila
followers
4,476,100
Filipino, English
followers
908,100

News startups

Given the widespread popularity of social media in the Philippines, many alternative news outlets and journalism startups have begun by building audiences on Facebook or YouTube. 246 The most significant example of this is the news organisation Rappler, which started in 2011 as a Facebook page and has grown to become a rival to established mastheads like The Philippine Daily Inquirer. 247 Rappler is used by 31% of news consumers and is trusted by 49%. 248

Rappler Holdings Corporation
Manila

Not-for-profit news outlets

The Philippines’ history of not-for-profit investigative journalism has largely revolved around the Philippine Centre for Investigative Journalism (PCIJ), founded in 1989. PCIJ journalists have reported numerous cases of political and corporate corruption, including the 2004 ‘News for sale’ scandal, which revealed extensive bribery between political candidates and media networks. 249

Filipino, English
Manila
Independent NFP
Filipino, English
Manila

Singapore

At a glance
Population
5.85 million (2020) 250
GDP per capita
USD 65,233 (2019) 251
Political system
Parliamentary republic 252
Demographics
Ethnicities
Chinese (76%), Malay (15.0%), Indian (7.5%), Other (1.5%) (2019) 253
Languages
English (36.9%), Mandarin (34.9%), Malay (10.7%), Tamil (3.3%), Other Chinese dialects (12.2%) (2015) 254
Religions
Taoism​/​Buddhism (43.2%), Christianity (18.8%), Islam (14.0%), Hinduism (5.0%), Other (19%) 255
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
88% (2019) 256
Top internet service providers
Singtel, StarHub, M1, TPG 257
Mobile phone ownership
96% ownership (2021) 258

Impact of Covid-19

Online news consumption rose sharply in the early days of the pandemic. 259 However, there is concern about the government using its fake news laws to censor the media, as in the case of Singapore’s States Times Review and its owner, whose Facebook pages were designated ‘Declared Online Locations’ by the Ministry of Communications and Information. 260

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

The TV market is dominated by the government-owned MediaCorp, which owns all six free-to-air TV channels. There are also 2 subscription television services, StarHub TV and SingTelmio, as well as 20 satellite broadcasters. 261 MediaCorp’s Channel News Asia (CNA) is the most popular television news channel, followed by its Mandarin-language Channel 8 News. 262

Reach
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
Audience share
36%
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
Chinese
Singapore
Audience share
28%
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
Audience share
26%
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
Malay
Singapore
Audience share
6%
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
Tamil
Singapore

Newspapers

There are eight daily print newspapers and one fully digital newspaper in Singapore. All but one are owned by Singapore Press Holdings. 263 The English-language The Straits Times newspaper is the most popular, followed by the Mandarin-language publications Lianhe Zaobao and Shin Min Daily News. 264

Reach
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
160,400
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
Chinese
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
99,500
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
Chinese
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
59,500
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
Chinese
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
39,600
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
Malay
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
22,400
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
18,000
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
Tamil
Singapore
Daily average circulation a
6,500
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
Audience share b
17%

Radio news

The government-owned MediaCorp Radio dominates the radio market. It owns 13 radio stations that broadcast in several languages to local and expat communities. 265 Three additional stations are owned by SPH radio, and two are owned by SAFRA Radio. 266 In 2017, around one-quarter of Singaporean news consumers listened to radio news. 267

Reach
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
Weekly reach
214,000

Online news

Online news sources are the most popular in Singapore, with 87% of news consumers turning to online sources and social media for news. The most successful brands are the online versions of Channel News Asia and The Straits Times newspaper. However, independent online news providers are increasingly popular, such as Mothership.sg, which began in 2013. 268

Reach
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
Audience share
48%
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
Audience share
41%
Mothership.sg Ltd.
English
Singapore
Audience share
40%
Altaba Inc.
English
Singapore
Audience share
29%
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
Audience share
22%
The Online Citizen
English
Singapore
Audience share
17%
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
Audience share
13%
The Independent News & Media
English
Singapore
Audience share
9%
The Smart Local
English
Singapore
Rice Media Pte. Ltd. (Mark Tan)
English
Singapore

Social media

Almost two-thirds of Singaporean new consumers get their news via social media (63%). WhatsApp is the most popular platform for getting news (47%), followed closely by Facebook (46%), then YouTube (24%), Instagram (16%), Telegram (11%) and Facebook Messenger (8%). The most popular news brands on social media tend to be established traditional television and newspaper outlets.

Reach
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
followers
3,388,475
Singapore Press Holdings Limited
English
Singapore
followers
1,565,384
Mediacorp Pte. Ltd.
English
Singapore
subscribers
1,090,000
Mothership.sg Ltd.
English
Singapore
followers
668,342
English
Singapore
followers
488,106
The Smart Local
English
Singapore
followers
247,320
English
Singapore
followers
115,590
Observatory Southeast Asia
English
Singapore
followers
14,761

News startups

There is an energetic tech startup culture in Singapore; however, the environment for startup news operations is less vibrant. Several independent news outfits, such as The Middle Ground, have recently closed due financial difficulties. 269 However, the activist news operation Wake Up, Singapore, which claims to be ‘shaping the nation one meme at a time’, has a growing following on social media. 270

Reach
Observatory Southeast Asia
English
Singapore
followers
15,674

Not-for-profit news outlets

In May 2021, Singapore Press Holdings – publisher of newspapers The Straits Times and Lianhe Zaobao – announced it would be shifting to a not-for-profit model following its first-ever loss of SGD 11.4 million (USD 8.5 million) for the financial year that ended in August 2020.

South Korea

At a glance
Population
51.3 million (2020) 271
GDP per capita
USD 31,846 (2019) 272
Political system
Democratic republic; presidential system 273
Number of journalists
31,364 (2018) 274
Demographics
Ethnicities
Korean 275
Languages
Korean and English 276
Religions
No religion (56.1%); Protestant (19.7%), Buddhist (15.5%), Catholic (7.9%) (2015) 277
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
96% (2019) 278
Top internet service providers
KT, SKT Broadband, LG U+ 279
Mobile phone ownership
96.7% ownership (2021) 280

Impact of Covid-19

During Covid-19 there have been reports that local and regional newspapers have lost 20–50% of their advertising revenues, forcing them to reduce the number of pages printed as a cost savings exercise. 281

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

There are 51 broadcast organisations in South Korea that provide news programming. This consists of 3 public news organisations broadcasting on 19 channels, 13 private broadcasters, 6 cable TV broadcasters, 3 terrestrial broadcasters and 10 special broadcasters. In 2018 the sector employed 16,756 people, 3,455 of them journalists. 282

TV audiences have remained strong in Korea over the past five years, with 92% audience reach in 2019. 283 In 2020 TV was a source of news for 63% of Korean news consumers, which represents a gradual fall since 2016. 284 While trust in news in Korea tends to be consistently low, TV news brands JTBC, MBC and YTN are the most trusted brands for news across all platforms. 285

Buddhist Broadcasting System
Korean
Christian Broadcasting System (CBS)
Korean
Cheongju Broadcasting Co., Ltd.
Korean
Korea Educational Broadcasting System (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Jeju Broadcasting System CO., LTD.
Korean
Jeonju Television Co., Ltd.
Korean
Kwangju Broadcasting Company
Korean
Korean Broadcasting System (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Korea New Network
Korean
The Foundation of Broadcast Culture (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Catholic Peace Broadcasting Corporation
Korean
SBS Media 
Korean
Taegu Broadcasting Corporation
Korean
Won Buddhism Broadcasting System
Korean

Newspapers

Newspaper readership has fallen dramatically over the past 15 years, from 88% of the population in 1993 to 12% in 2019. 286 The number of daily newspaper publications nationwide fell by 31% over the 10 years from 2011 to 2020. 287 However, the number of online papers grew by more than 30% between 2015 and 2019, rising to 8,715. 288 More than 24,000 people work in the newspaper industry, 15,050 of whom are reporters. 289

Reach
Chosun Media
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
1,308,395
The Dong-A Ilbo
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
965,286
Maekyung Media Group
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
707,749
The Korea Economic Daily Media Group
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
531,255
Nongmin News Paper (Independent)
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
393,956
Dongwha Group
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
221,859
Hankyoreh Media Company
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
214,832
Kyunghyang Daily News
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
190,745
Munhwa Ilbo Co.
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
190,670
Seoul Newspaper Co.
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
165,608
Busan Ilbo Co.
Korean
Busan
Daily circulation
144,073
Kukmin Ilbo
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
128,959
Sports Seoul Co.
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
115,968
Kookje Daily News Co.
Korean
Busan
Daily circulation
115,413
Chosun Media
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
112,116
The Korea Economic Daily
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
101,099
News World Communications
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
95,139
Money Today Co.
Korean
Seoul
Daily circulation
85,054

Radio news

Radio news is not that popular in South Korea. While 16.5% of the population listens to the radio, only 0.8% listens to radio news. 290 There are 12 radio channels that broadcast news in South Korea, including 1 dedicated news radio outlet, YTN News FM. 291

Reach
Korean Broadcasting System
Korean
followers
2,136,985
JoongAng Group
Korean
followers
1,546,598
JoongAng Group
Korean
subscribers
1,430,000
SBS Media 
Korean
followers
1,120,223
Korean Broadcasting System
Korean
subscribers
1,010,000
Dong-A Media Group
Korean
subscribers
1,000,000
Kyunghyang Company
Korean
followers
721,700
JoongAng Group
Korean
followers
604,100
Korean Center for Investigative Journalism
Korean
subscribers
600,000
Hankyoreh Media Company
Korean
followers
545,500
Chosun Media
Korean
followers
534,836
Ohmynews (Independent)
Korean
subscribers
443,000
Korean Broadcasting System
Korean
followers
429,200
SBS Media 
Korean
followers
426,300
The Foundation of Broadcast Culture
Korean
followers
401,600
Hankyoreh Media Company
Korean
subscribers
385,000
Christian Broadcasting System
Korean
subscribers
316,000
Ohmynews (Independent)
Korean
followers
313,000
JoongAng Group
Korean
followers
293,800
Dong-A Media Group
Korean
followers
119,031

Online news

The number of online news outlets has increased in the past few years. In 2018 there were 2,353 digital-only news brands and 547 traditional newspapers with an online presence. In 2018 the online news sector employed more than 17,000 people, 11,163 of them journalists. 292 Approximately 40% of South Korean news consumers get their news via an online news portal. The top two news portals are Naver and Daum. 293

Korean
Seoul
The Dong-A Ilbo
Korean
Seoul
Seoul Economic Daily Co. Ltd
Korean
Seoul
The Electronic Times Co. Ltd
Korean
Seoul
Dongwha Group
Korean
Seoul
Hankyoreh Media Company
Korean
Seoul
Hankyung Media Group
Korean
Seoul
JoongAng Group
Korean
Seoul
Kukmin Ilbo
Korean
Seoul
Kyunghyang Daily News
Korean
Seoul
Maekyoung Media Group
Korean
Seoul
Munhwa Ilbo Co.
Korean
Seoul
Oh My News (Independent)
Korean
Seoul
The Korea Economic Daily
Korean
Seoul

Social media news outlets

The use of social media to access news grew rapidly from 2019 to 2020 in South Korea, rising from 26% of news consumers to 44%. Among these news consumers, YouTube is the most popular social media platform (45%), followed by local messaging app Kakao Talk (27%), Facebook (19%), Instagram (9%), Kakao Story (8%) and Twitter (6%). 294

Buddhist Broadcasting System
Korean
Christian Broadcasting System
Korean
Dong-A Media Group
Korean
Seoul
Catholic Peace Broadcasting Corporation
Korean
Korea Educational Broadcasting System (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Seoul
JoongAng Group
Korean
Seoul
Korean Broadcasting System (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Seoul
The Foundation of Broadcast Culture (Public broadcaster)
Korean
Seoul
Maekyung Media Group
Korean
Seoul
SBS Media 
Korean
Seoul
Chosun Media
Korean
Seoul
Yonhap News Agency
Korean
Seoul

News startups

Numerous news media startups funded by venture capital firms have emerged, including Outstanding and Dable. 295 Because of the dominance of the major websites Naver and Daum in the digital news industry in Korea, it is not easy for startups to establish their own traffic and revenue. However, the government has begun to provide support programs, managed by the Korean Press Foundation, for news media startups. In April 2020, 12 startups received support. 296

beSUCCESS Inc.
Korean, English
Bloter&Media Inc
Korean
B’ZUP
Korean
Independent
Korean, English, 4 Others
KOREA EXPOSÉ
English
Korean
Independent
Korean
Platum
Korean
Independent
Korean
Independent
Korean
Independent
Korean
Independent
Korean

Not-for-profit news outlets

Not-for-profit approaches to journalism are gaining interest as an alternative business model. 297 One successful example is from the Korean Centre for Independent Journalism, KCIJ-Newstapa, a non-profit investigative journalism outlet that started in 2012. 298 Other include NewsToF.com and SISAIN.

Korean Centre for Independent Journalism
Korean
Seoul
Independent
Korean
Seoul
Independent
Korean
Seoul

Taiwan

At a glance
Population
23.8 million (2020) 299
GDP per capita
USD 25,941 (2019) 300
Political system
Semi-presidential republic, 301 multiparty democracy 302
Demographics
Ethnicities
Han Chinese (>95%), Malayo-Polynesian People (2%), New immigrants (2%) (2020) 303
Languages
Mandarin (Chinese), Taiwanese 304
Religions
Buddhism, Taoism, I-Kuan Tao, Chinese folk religions, Christianity, Islam 305
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
93% (2020) 306
Top internet service providers
Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile, FarEasTone 307
Mobile phone ownership
98.7% ownership (2021) 308

Impact of Covid-19

News consumption via TV grew sharply early in the global pandemic. 309 Despite the increase in consumption there have been some contractions. In June 2020, Taiwan’s largest evening newspaper, United Evening News, ceased publishing, and that same month Apple Daily laid off 140 employees, or 13% of its total workforce, to cover operational losses. 310

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

TV is very popular in Taiwan. There are 5 terrestrial TV stations (22 channels), 64 cable TV operators, 4 satellite broadcasters and 261 satellite channels. 311 TV is the second most popular way to access news, after online sources, with 62% of Taiwanese news consumers watching TV news in 2020. 312 However, use of TV for news has fallen steadily from the 77% recorded in 2017. 313 In 2019, the market for TV advertising was worth USD 903 million. 314 Taiwan’s public broadcaster is the Public Television Service. It is the most trusted TV news brand in Taiwan. 315

Reach
TVBS Media Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
46%
Eastern Broadcasting Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
36%
Sanlih E-Television Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
34%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
34%
Formosa Television Co.,Ltd
Chinese
New Taipei
Audience share
29%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
20%
Taiwan Television Enterprise, Ltd.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
20%
Era Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
19%
Era Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
17%
Public Television Culture Foundation
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
12%
Eastern Broadcasting Group
Chinese
Taipei
Sanlih E-Television Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
Eastern Broadcasting Group
Chinese
Taipei

Newspapers

As is the case in other Asian markets analysed here, newspapers are declining in popularity and suffering from falling advertising revenue. 316 In 2020, 21% of Taiwanese audiences accessed news via print. 317 In 2018, there were 252 newspaper publishers in Taiwan. 318 The most popular publications include Apple Daily, China Times, United Daily News and Liberty Times, which account for 22.5% of total market share. 319 However, the number of newspapers and journalists has contracted as a result of the pandemic.

Reach
Liberty Times Group
Traditional Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
9.4%
Next Digital Limited
Traditional Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
7.0%
United Daily News Group
Traditional Chinese
New Taipei
Audience share
3.3%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Traditional Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
2.8%
United Daily News Group
Traditional Chinese
New Taipei
Audience share
0.9%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Traditional Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
0.7%
Taiwan Zhonghua Daily Co. LTD
Traditional Chinese
Tainan 
Audience share
0.4%
Keng Seng Daily News
Traditional Chinese
Hualien 
Audience share
0.2%
Taiwan Times Newspaper Co. LTD
Traditional Chinese
Kaohsiung
Audience share
0.2%
Taiwan Shin Sheng Daily News
Traditional Chinese
Taipei

Radio news

There are 177 radio stations in Taiwan, 320 but radio is the least consumed medium with only a 17.9% penetration rate in 2019. 321 The advertising spend on radio is also the lowest among media, at USD 84 million in 2019. 322 In 2017, the Digital News Report found 23% of local news consumers used radio as a general source of news, 323 but in a separate study only 1.3% of Taiwanese used radio as their main source of news in 2019. 324

Reach
Broadcasting Corporation of China
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
10.0%
Broadcast Entertainment South Taiwan Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Kaohsiung
Audience share
4.9%
Broadcast Entertainment South Taiwan Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
4.6%
Taipei International Community Cultural Foundation
English
New Taipei
Audience share
4.4%
UFO Broadcasting Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
3.7%
Asia Broadcasting Corporation LTD
Chinese
Taoyuan
Audience share
2.9%
Voice of Taipei Broadcasting Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
2.9%
News98 Radio Station
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
2.6%
Broadcasting Corporation of China
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
2.6%
Broadcast Entertainment South Taiwan Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Taizhong
Audience share
2.4%

Online news

Online news consumption has outstripped traditional platforms in Taiwan, with 83% of Taiwanese news consumers getting their news from online sources in 2020. Three-quarters were doing so via their mobile phones. 325 Taiwan’s internet advertising market has grown strongly in recent years, from USD 783 million in 2015 to nearly USD 1.4 billion in 2019. 326

Reach
Verizon Media
Chinese
Audience share
45%
Eastern Broadcasting Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
40%
TVBS Media Inc
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
33%
Line Corporation
Chinese
Audience share
32%
Sanlih E-Television Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
27%
Eastern Broadcasting Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
24%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
23%
Next Digital Limited
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
23%
United Daily News Group
Chinese
New Taipei
Audience share
19%
Liberty Times Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
17%
Storm Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
16%
Taiwan Television Enterprise, Ltd
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
14%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
12%
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Audience share
10%

Social media

Social media are very popular in Taiwan. In January 2021, 82.6% of Taiwanese were social media users. 327 The most widely used social media platforms in Taiwan are YouTube, Facebook and Line. 328 When it comes to news consumers, Line is the most popular application (49%), followed by Facebook (47%) and YouTube (41%). 329

Reach
Eastern Broadcasting Co., Ltd.
Chinese
Taipei
followers a
5,393,423
Next Digital Limited
Chinese
Taipei
followers a
3,506,162
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
subscribers b
2,480,000
Want Want China Times Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
followers a
1,629,511
TVBS Media Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
subscribers a
1,390,000
Liberty Times Group
Chinese
Taipei
followers a
1,282,595
United Daily News Group
Chinese
Taipei
followers a
1,218,519
Sanlih E-Television Inc.
Chinese
Taipei
subscribers a
1,020,000
Formosa Television Co.,Ltd
Chinese
New Taipei
subscribers a
683,000
Era Group
Chinese
Taipei
subscribers a
469,000

News startups

In recent years, independent digital-born sites such as Storm Media, New Talk and News Lens have established themselves in the Taiwan media landscape. 330 Storm Media began in 2014 and now has a weekly audience of 16% and is trusted by 27% of Taiwanese news consumers. 331

Pioneer Media Social Enterprise Co., LTD
Chinese
Taipei
Storm Media Group
Chinese
Taipei
Independent
Chinese, English
Taipei, Hong Kong

Not-for-profit news outlets

The first non-profit news outlet in Taiwan, The Reporter, began in 2015 and focuses on investigative and in-depth journalism. It was started by The Reporter Cultural Foundation. The Reporter is trusted by 21% of Taiwan’s news consumers, 332 and its website states the news outlet has attracted more than 300,000 annual donations. 333

The Reporter Foundation
Chinese
Taipei

Thailand

At a glance
Population
69.8 million (2020) 334
GDP per capita
USD 7,806 (2019) 335
Political system
Constitutional monarchy
Number of journalists
15,000 working journalists (2017 estimate) 336
Demographics
Ethnicities
Thai (97.5%), Burmese (1.3%), Other (1.1%), Unspecified (<.1%) (2015 estimate) 337
Languages
Thai (official) 90.7%, Thai and other languages 6.4%, only other languages 2.9% (includes Malay, Burmese) (2010 estimate) 338
Religions
Buddhist (94.6%), Muslim (4.3%), Christian (1%), Other (<1%) (2015) 339
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
66.7% (2019) 340
Top internet service providers
AIS, Telenor’s DTAC, and True Corporation’s TrueMove H 341
Mobile phone ownership
99% ownership (2021) 342

Impact of Covid-19

There is concern that an emergency declaration issued during the pandemic is being used to limit free speech and to clamp down on criticism of the government’s response. 343

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

Thailand’s closely regulated TV market is dominated by six state-run stations, two of which are run by the military. All broadcast government-produced news twice a day. 344 There are also 26 digital stations. 345 In 2018, the average Thai consumed 198 minutes of TV per day, making TV more popular than radio and newspaper, but less popular than the internet. 346 According to data collected by the National Broadcasting Telecommunications Commission, approximately 50% of the Thai population watches TV. 347 The most popular station, Channel 7 (BBTV), is owned by the Royal Thai Army. 348

BEC-TERO Entertainment Public Co. Ltd. (Part owned by Thai Government)
Thai
Bangkok
Bangkok Broadcasting Television (Royal Thai Army)
Thai
Bangkok
RS Public Company Ltd.
Thai
Bangkok
MCOT (Thai Government)
Thai
Bangkok
Mono Broadcast Company Limited
Thai
Bangkok
Thailand Public Relations Department (Thai Government)
Thai, English
Bangkok
The One Enterprise Co. Ltd.
Thai
Bangkok
Bangkok Media and Broadcasting Co. Ltd.
Thai
Bangkok
Thai Public Broadcasting Service (Thai Government)
Thai, English
Bangkok
Triple V Broadcast (Thai Rath)
Thai
Bangkok

Newspapers

As in other Asian markets analysed here, print newspaper use is declining. In contrast to the television market in Thailand, most of the major newspapers are privately owned. This includes the Thai-language papers Thai Rath, Khao Sod, Matichon and Daily News. 349 Most are not in financially stable positions and are moving towards a greater focus on digital content. The most popular English-language newspapers in Thailand, The Bangkok Post and The Nation, both ceased publication of their print editions in 2019 and have moved to online-only distribution. Newspapers are one of the least consumed media: the average person spends only 23 minutes per day reading a newspaper. 350 Newspapers accounted for 5% of advertising spending in 2018. 351

Bankok Post Public Company
English
Bangkok
Si Phraya Printing Co., Ltd.
Thai
Bangkok
Matichon Publishing Group
Thai
Bangkok
Nation Multimedia Group
Thai
Bangkok
Manager Media Group PCL
Thai
Bangkok
Matichon Publishing Group
Thai
Bangkok
Government of Thailand
Thai
Bangkok
Siamrath Company Limited
Thai
Bangkok
Sing Sian Yer Pao Company (Part owned by Nanfang Media Group)
Chinese (Hakka)
Bangkok
Praneetsilpa Vacharaphol (Private owner)
Thai
Bangkok
Class Act Media Company
English
Bangkok

Radio news

Radio is the third most popular medium in Thailand after television and the internet. Much like television, the estimated 700 officially registered radio stations in Thailand are generally controlled directly or indirectly by the government. 352 There are also more than 3,000 community radio stations. 353

FM 1010 R.R. One
MCOT (Thai Government)
Thai
Bangkok
MCOT (Thai Government)
Thai
Bangkok
Nation Radio Network 90.5 FM
Nation Multimedia Group
Thai
Bangkok
National Broadcasting Services of Thailand (Public broadcaster)
Thai
Bangkok

Online news

In 2018, the average Thai spent 214 minutes per day accessing the internet, making it the most popular medium in the country. 354 Despite this, there is limited research exploring how Thai news consumers access online news brands or social media for news. The leading Thai English-language newspapers, The Bangkok Post and The Nation, are now digital-only news outlets. 355 Tencent-owned web portal Sanook.com and the online edition of Thai Rath are among the top news brands by traffic in Thailand. 356

Coconuts Media
English, Thai
Bangkok
Matichon Publishing Group
Thai
Bangkok
Manager Media Group PCL
Thai
Bangkok
Nation Multimedia Group
English
Bangkok
Tencent (Thailand) Company Limited
Thai
Bangkok
Thai Public Broadcasting Service (Thai Government)
English
Bangkok
Praneetsilpa Vacharaphol (Private Owner)
Thai
Bangkok
Nation Multimedia Group
English
Bangkok
The Pattaya News Company Limited
English
Bangkok

Social media

As mobile and internet use has grown, social media has become a significant part of everyday life in Thailand. In January 2021, YouTube was the most popular social networking platform, used by 94.2% of adult internet users, followed closely by Facebook (93.3%). 357 Messaging apps are popular as well, with 86.2% of Thais using LINE and 77.1% using Facebook Messenger. 358

Reach
Matichon Publishing Group
Thai
followers
15,241,987
BEC-TERO Entertainment Public Co. Ltd. (Part owned by Thai Government)
Thai, English
followers
12,935,229
RS Public Company Ltd.
Thai
followers
6,571,513
Bangkok Broadcasting Television (Royal Thai Army)
Thai
followers
6,461,488
Tencent (Thailand) Company Limited
Thai
followers
5,799,978
The One Enterprise Co. Ltd.
Thai
followers
5,271,652
Amarin Television Co Ltd.
Thai
followers
5,238,198
MCOT (Thai Government)
Thai
followers
3,426,650
BEC-TERO Entertainment Public Co. Ltd. (Part owned by Thai Government)
Thai, English
followers
1,352,517
The Pattaya News Company Limited
English
followers
149,177
Class Act Media Company
English
followers
144,666

News startups

Journalism startups are rare in Thailand. Two examples are the digital-focused The Thaiger, which publishes news in Thai (as Tadoo) and in English (as Thisrupt). The Thaiger was established by Australian journalist Tim Newton, a long-term resident of Thailand who purchased the print​/​digital newspaper the Phuket Gazette and reformed it into a digital-only outlet with a focus on social media. 359 Thisrupt was established by former editor-in-chief of GQ Thailand, Voranai Vanijaka, and is focused on critical and political journalism.

The Thaiger Co. Ltd.
English, Thai
Singapore
English

Not-for-profit news outlets

Not-for-profit journalistic organisations have struggled to find footholds in Thailand, with the notable exception of Prachatai. 360 It was founded in 2004 by a group of concerned citizens, including journalists, politicians, academics and leaders of non-governmental organisations. Prachatai produces independent, investigative and political journalism.

English
Chiang Rai
The Foundation for Community Educational Media
English, Thai
Chiang Mai

Vietnam

At a glance
Population
97.3 million (2020) 361
GDP per capita
USD 2,785 (2020) 362
Political system
Single-party Communist state 363
Number of journalists
According to the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC), 41,000 people were employed in the news media in 2019, including 20,407 journalists who had been issued a press card by MIC. There were also 147 Vietnamese correspondents based in other countries. 364
Demographics
Ethnicities
Viet (Kinh) (85.7%), 53 other ethnic minorities (14.3%) (2009) 365
Languages
Vietnamese (Tieng Viet), Viet-Muong, Mon-Khmer 366
Religions
Buddhism (16.2%), Christian (8.4%), Muslim (<1%), folk religions (45.3%), Caodaism and HoaHao. 367
Digital infrastructure
Internet Penetration
70.3% (2018) 368
Top internet service providers
VNPT-Vinaphone, Viettel, Mobifone, CMC Telecom and FTP Telecom 369
Mobile phone ownership
96.9% of internet users (2021) 370

Impact of Covid-19

The Vietnamese government used state-owned offline and online media to share public health information and government messaging. 371 Some journalists have been arrested for publishing alleged misinformation about the pandemic. 372

Market segmentation by news medium

Television news

TV is the most popular medium in Vietnam. It is watched by 97% of the population. 373 The terrestrial state broadcaster, Vietnam TV (VTV), has nine free-to-air channels and three pay TV channels. 374 In 2015, the Vietnam Multimedia Corporation (VTC) Digital TV network merged with the state radio broadcaster, Voice of Vietnam (VOV). 375 The VTC Digital network has three terrestrial and satellite channels and six pay channels. 376

Reach
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
32.5%
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
29.4%
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
13.2%
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
9.2%
The Ministry of Public Security
Hanoi
Audience share
7.9%
The Hanoi People’s Committee
Hanoi
Audience share
7.5%
The Viet Nam Publishing Association
Ho Chi Minh
Audience share
7.4%
The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
4.9%
Vietnam Multimedia Corporation
Hanoi
Audience share
4.8%
Echannel
The Viet Nam Publishing Association
Audience share
4.7%
The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
4.6%
The Vietnam Multimedia Corporation
Hanoi
Audience share
4.3%
The Hanoi Municipal Party Committee
Hanoi
Audience share
4.2%
The Saigon Tourist Cable TV Ltd.
Ho Chi Minh
Audience share
4.0%
The Viet Nam News Agency
Hanoi
Audience share
3.9%
The Vietnam Multimedia Corporation
Hanoi
Audience share
3.9%
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
3.4%
The Viet Nam Television, The Government of Viet Nam
Hanoi
Audience share
3.3%

Newspapers

As of November 2019, there were 179 print newspapers, according to MIC. 377 Thanh Nien News has the largest circulation, followed by the ‘youth’ newspaper, Tuoi Tre, the official paper of the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union, and Nhân Dân (The People). 378 According the Korea Press Foundation, 30% of Vietnamese regularly read newspapers. 379

The General Department of Sports and Physical Training
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The Da Nang Department of Public Security
Vietnamese
Da Nang
The Ho Chi Minh City Department of Public Security
Vietnamese
Southern Vietnam
The Communist Party of Viet Nam
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The Ministry of Planning and Investment
Vietnamese
Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh
The Ministry of Planning and Investment
Vietnamese
Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh
The Viet Nam Lawyers Association
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The Hanoi Municipal Party Committee
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The Viet Nam General Confederation of Labour
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The Ho Chi Minh City Labour Confederation
Vietnamese
Ho Chi Minh
The Ho Chi Minh City Women’s Union
Vietnamese
Ho Chi Minh
The Viet Nam Women’s Union
Vietnamese
Hanoi
The CPV’s Central Military Commission and The Ministry of Defence
Vietnamese, English, Chinese, Khmer
Hanoi